Franklin , Benjamin
- (1706–1790) American scientist, statesman, diplomat, printer, and inventorFranklin's father left England in 1682 and the following year settled in Boston, Massachusetts, where he worked as a candle maker and soap boiler. Although originally intended for the clergy, Franklin, who was born in Boston, was forced to leave school at the age of ten for financial reasons; after helping his father for some time he was apprenticed to his brother, a printer, in 1718.He continued his trade as a printer in London (1724–26), and thereafter in Philadelphia where he published, from 1729, thePennsylvania Gazette and, from 1733, the hugely successful Poor Richard's Almanac. Shortly afterward Franklin began his life in public affairs serving as clerk of the State Assembly (1736–51) and as deputy postmaster representing the colonies (1753–74), during which he saw further service in London (1757–62; 1764–75). On his return to America Franklin played an active role in the revolution and was one of the five who drafted the Declaration of Independence in 1776. He was sent to France in 1776 to seek military and financial aid for the colonies and largely through his own popularity succeeded in achieving an alliance in 1778. Returning to America in 1785, he performed his last public duty as a member of the Constitution Convention in 1787 before retiring from public life in 1788.Despite such an active political and public life Franklin also made important contributions to 18th-century physical theory in the period 1743–52. By conversation with scholars in London, reading, and correspondence with friends, his interest in the newly discovered phenomena of electricity had been aroused.Franklin would have known of the work of Stephen Gray and Charles Dufay and the basic distinction established between electrics (such as glass and amber), which could be electrified by rubbing, and nonelectrics (such as metals), which resisted such treatment. Electrics were further divided into vitreous substances, such as glass, and resinous substances, such as amber. Dufay had concluded that there were two distinct electric fluids – the vitreous and the resinous – in his two-fluid theory.Franklin agreed with Dufay that electricity was a fluid. More significant properties of electricity emerged out of Franklin's experiments from 1747 onward. From these experiments, including those on the Leyden jar, Franklin devised his one-fluid theory of electricity. He also introduced the terminology of ‘positive’ and ‘negative’ into the science.Practical gains emerged from Franklin's discovery that lightning is an electric charge. He knew that the electric fluid was attracted by points but wondered if lightning would also be attracted. In 1752 he performed his famous, yet hazardous, experiment with a kite during a thunderstorm and established the identity of lightning with electricity. Following this he suggested the use of lightning rods on tall buildings to conduct electricity away from the building and direct to ground.Franklin also published works on the problems of light, heat, and dynamics. Outside of physics Franklin's most important scientific work was in oceanography with his study of the Gulf Stream. He measured its temperature at different places and depths, estimated the current's velocity, and analyzed its effects on the weather. From reports supplied to him by Nantucket sea captains he also constructed the first printed chart of the Gulf Stream. Franklin is also remembered for his large number of inventions that included (in addition to his lightning rod) bifocal spectacles, the rocking chair, and an efficient stove.
Scientists. Academic. 2011.
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Franklin, Benjamin — Franklin, Benjamin, einer der ausgezeichnetsten Männer seines Jahrhunderts, der Vertreter der Befreiung Nordamerika s vor dem übermüthigen englischen Mutterlande, der Erfinder des Blitzableiters, war 1706 in Boston geboren, folgte seiner Neigung… … Damen Conversations Lexikon
Franklin,Benjamin — Franklin, Benjamin. 1706 1790. American public official, writer, scientist, and printer. After the success of his Poor Richard s Almanac (1732 1757), he entered politics and played a major part in the American Revolution. Franklin negotiated… … Universalium
Franklin, Benjamin — born Jan. 17, 1706, Boston, Mass. died April 17, 1790, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S. American statesman, scientist, philosopher, and publisher. He was apprenticed at age 12 to his brother, a local printer. He taught himself to write effectively, and in … Universalium
Franklin, Benjamin — SUBJECT AREA: Medical technology, Photography, film and optics [br] b. 17 January 1706 Boston, Massachusetts, USA d. 17 April 1790 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA [br] American diplomat, statesman, scientist and inventor of bifocal spectacle… … Biographical history of technology
Franklin, Benjamin — (1706–1790) Although Franklin s distinction rests on his work as a scientist and statesman, his homely moral and political philosophy, particularly as expounded in Poor Richard s Almanack (1733–58), has been extremely influential as an expression … Philosophy dictionary
Franklin, Benjamin — ► (1706 90) Político, físico y escritor estadounidense. Se decidió a montar su propia imprenta, para lo cual se trasladó, en 1723, a Londres con el fin de adquirir los conocimientos suficientes del negocio editorial. En 1726 volvió de nuevo a… … Enciclopedia Universal
FRANKLIN, BENJAMIN — born in Boston, was the youngest son of a tallow chandler and one of a family of 17; received a meagre education, and at the age of 12 became apprenticed to his brother, a printer and proprietor of a small newspaper, to whose columns he began… … The Nuttall Encyclopaedia
Franklin, Benjamin — (1706 1790) American statesman and philosopher. Index: Dr Heads commission to enquire into affairs in Canada, 135; his report, 136. WM Did not believe British colonies would revolt, 269. Bib.: Autobiography; Complete Works, ed. by… … The makers of Canada
Franklin, Benjamin — (1706 1790) American statesman, philosopher, and writer, was one of a numerous family. His f. was a soap boiler at Boston, where F. was b. He was apprenticed at the age of 13 to his brother, a printer, who treated him harshly. After various… … Short biographical dictionary of English literature
Franklin, Benjamin — см. Франклин, Бенджамин … Писатели США. Краткие творческие биографии