Abel , John Jacob

(1857–1938) American biochemist
Abel was born in Cleveland, Ohio, the son of a farmer. He was educated at the University of Michigan and Johns Hopkins University. He spent the years 1884–90 in Europe studying at Leipzig, Heidelberg, Würzburg, Vienna, Bern, and Strasbourg, where he gained an MD in 1888. On his return to America he worked briefly at the University of Michigan before being appointed in 1893 to the first chair of pharmacology at Johns Hopkins, a post he retained until his retirement in 1932.
Abel approached biology with a first-rate training in chemistry and with the conviction that the study of molecules and atoms was as important as the observation of multicellular tissues under the microscope. He thus began by working on the chemical composition of various bodily tissues and fluids and, in 1897, succeeded in isolating a physiologically active substance from the adrenal glands, named by him epinephrine, also known as adrenalin. This extract was actually the monobenzoyl derivative of the hormone. It was left to Jokichi Takamine to purify it in 1900.
As early as 1912 Abel clearly formulated the idea of an artificial kidney and in 1914 isolated for the first time amino acids from the blood. He was less successful with his search (1917–24) for the pituitary hormone, being unaware that he was dealing with not one but several hormones. His announcement in 1926, that he had crystallized insulin met with considerable skepticism, especially regarding its protein nature. This work was not generally accepted until the mid 1930s.
After his retirement Abel devoted himself to a study of the tetanus toxin.

Scientists. . 2011.

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  • Abel, John Jacob — SUBJECT AREA: Medical technology [br] b. 19 May 1857 near Cleveland, Ohio, USA d. 26 May 1938 Baltimore, Maryland, USA [br] American pharmacologist and physiologist, proponent of the artificial kidney and the isolator of pure insulin. [br] Born… …   Biographical history of technology

  • Abel, John Jacob — ▪ American physiological chemist born May 19, 1857, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S. died May 26, 1938, Baltimore, Md.       American pharmacologist and physiological chemist who made important contributions to a modern understanding of the ductless, or… …   Universalium

  • John Jacob Abel — Infobox Scientist name = John Jacob Abel box width = image width =150px caption = John Jacob Abel birth date = May 19, 1857 birth place = Cleveland, Ohio death date = May 26, 1938 death place = residence = citizenship = nationality = American… …   Wikipedia

  • John Jacob Abel — (* 19. Mai 1857 in Cleveland, Ohio; † 26. Mai 1938 in Baltimore, Maryland) war ein US amerikanischer Biochemiker und Pharmakologe. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Leben und Werk 2 Bedeutende Schriften …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • John Jacob Abel — (Cleveland, 19 de mayo de 1857 – Baltimore,26 de mayo de 1938)Quimico y farmacólogo estadounidense, cuyas investigaciones supusieron importantes avances en el campo de la farmacología. Se graduó en la Universidad de Míchigan en 1883 como experto… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Abel (Homonymie) — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Abel (surname) — Family name name = Abel imagesize= caption= pronunciation = meaning = breath from the given name Abel, the second son of Adam and Eve region = origin = Biblical related names =Aapeli footnotes =Abel is a surname, and may refer to: * Alan Abel (b …   Wikipedia

  • Abel (Familienname) — Relative Häufigkeit des Namens Abel in Deutschland (Stand: Juni 2010) Abel ist ein deutscher, englischer und französischer Familienname. Inhaltsverzeichnis A B C D E …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Abel (homonymie) — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Sur les autres projets Wikimedia : « Abel (homonymie) », sur le Wiktionnaire (dictionnaire universel) Abel est un nom propre qui peut… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Abel (Son of Adam) —     Abel     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Abel     (From the Hebrew word for Vanity, probably so called from the shortness of his life Gesenius; Gr., Abel, whence Eng. form).     Abel was the second son of Adam. Vigouroux and Hummelauer contend that …   Catholic encyclopedia

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