Ewing , Sir James Alfred

(1855–1935) British physicist
The son of a minister of the Free Church of Scotland, Ewing was educated at the University of Edinburgh where he studied engineering. He served as professor of engineering at the Imperial University, Tokyo, from 1878 until 1883 when he returned to Scotland to a similar post at the University of Dundee. In 1890 he was appointed professor of applied mechanics at Cambridge University, but in 1903 moved into higher levels of administration, first as director of naval education and from 1916 until his retirement in 1929 as principal and vice-chancellor of Edinburgh University.
In Japan he worked on problems in seismology and in 1883 published Treatise on Earthquake Measurement. However, his most notable achievement as a physicist was his work on hysteresis, first described by him in 1881. Hysteresis is an effect in which there are two properties, M and N, such that cyclic changes of N cause cyclic variations of M. If the changes of M lag behind those of N, there is hysteresis in the relation of M to N. Ewing came across the phenomena when working on the effects of stress on the thermoelectric properties of a wire. Hysteresis effects were later shown to apply to many aspects of the behavior of materials, in particular in magnetization.
Ewing was put in charge of the cryptologists at the Admiralty from 1914 to 1916. He described his work there in his book The Man in Room 40 (1939).

Scientists. . 2011.

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  • Ewing, Sir James Alfred — SUBJECT AREA: Mechanical, pneumatic and hydraulic engineering [br] b. 27 March 1855 Dundee, Scotland d. 1935 [br] Scottish engineer and educator. [br] Sir Alfred Ewing was one of the leading engineering academics of his generation. He was the son …   Biographical history of technology

  • James Alfred Ewing — James Ewing. Sir James Alfred Ewing (* 27. März 1855 in Dundee, Schottland; † 7. Januar 1935) war ein schottischer Physiker und Ingenieur, der vor allem die magnetischen Eigenschaften der Metalle erforscht hat und den Begriff der Hysterese… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • James Alfred Ewing — Naissance 27 mars 1855 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • James Alfred Ewing — Infobox Scientist name = James Alfred Ewing box width = image width =200px caption = James Alfred Ewing birth date = 27 March 1855 birth place = death date = 7 January 1935 death place = residence = citizenship = nationality = Scottish ethnicity …   Wikipedia

  • Alfred Ewing — Sir James Alfred Ewing (* 27. März 1855 in Dundee, Schottland; † 7. Januar 1935) war ein schottischer Physiker und Ingenieur, der vor allem die magnetischen Eigenschaften der Metalle erforscht hat und den Begriff der Hysterese mitprägte.… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • EWING — UNITED KINGDOM (see also List of Individuals) 27.3.1855 Dundee/UK 7.1.1935 Cambridge/UK James Alfred Ewing was educated at Edinburgh University and came into contact with Lord Kelvin (1824 1907) as assistant in submarine telegraphy. Ewing was… …   Hydraulicians in Europe 1800-2000

  • Ewing — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Le nom d’Ewing est porté par plusieurs personnalités (par ordre alphabétique) : Henry Ellsworth Ewing (1883 1951), arachnologiste et entomologiste… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Ewing (surname) — Family name name=Ewing imagesize= meaning=noble or well born region=Britain language=English related names=Ewan Ewen and Ewens Ewin and Ewins Ewings Hewin and Hewins Owen Uwins Yewen Youens YouingsEwing, pronounced [IPA| ju.wɪŋ] ( yew ing ), is a …   Wikipedia

  • Liste der Biografien/Ew — Biografien: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Mechanical, pneumatic and hydraulic engineering — See also: INDEX BY SUBJECT AREA [br] Adamson, Daniel Alden, George I. Archimedes of Syracuse Ashley, Howard Matravers Banu Musa ibn Shakir Bilgram, Hugo Bodmer, Johann Georg …   Biographical history of technology

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