Eccles , Sir John Carew

(1903–1997) Australian physiologist
Born in Melbourne, Australia, Eccles was educated at the university there and at Oxford University. In Oxford he worked with Charles Sherrington on muscular reflexes and nervous transmission across the synapses (nerve junctions) from 1927 to 1937. He then worked in Australia at the Institute of Pathology from 1937 to 1943. After a period in New Zealand, as professor of physiology at the University of Otago from 1944 to 1951, Eccles returned to Australia to the Australian National University, Canberra, where he served as professor of physiology from 1951 to 1966. In 1966 Eccles moved to the USA, working first in Chicago and finally, from 1968 until his retirement in 1975, at the State University of New York, Buffalo.
While at Canberra Eccles carried out work on the chemical changes that take place at synapses, pursuing the findings of Alan Hodgkin and Andrew Huxley, with whom he subsequently shared the 1963 Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine. Eccles showed that excitation of different nerve cells causes the synapses to release a substance (probably acetylcholine) that promotes the passage of sodium and potassium ions and effects an alternation in the polarity of the electric charge. It is in this way that nervous impulses are communicated or inhibited by nerve cells. Eccles was the author of Reflex Activity of the Spinal Cord (1932) andThe Physiology of Nerve Cells (1957).
After his retirement Eccles published a number of works on the mind-body problem. Notable among them are The Self and the Brain (1977), written in collaboration with Karl Popper, The Human Mystery (1979), and The Creation of the Self (1989).

Scientists. . 2011.

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  • Eccles,Sir John Carew — Ec·cles (ĕkʹəlz), Sir John Carew. 1903 1997. Australian physiologist. He shared a 1963 Nobel Prize for research on nerve cells. * * * …   Universalium

  • Eccles, Sir John Carew — ▪ 1998       Australian neurophysiologist (b. Jan. 27, 1903, Melbourne, Australia d. May 2, 1997, Contra, Switz.), discovered many aspects of the vertebrate nervous system, notably how nerve impulses are transmitted between neurons, or nerve… …   Universalium

  • Sir John Carew Eccles — noun Australian physiologist noted for his research on the conduction of impulses by nerve cells (1903 1997) • Syn: ↑Eccles, ↑John Eccles • Instance Hypernyms: ↑physiologist …   Useful english dictionary

  • John Carew Eccles — Sir John Carew Eccles AC (* 27. Januar 1903 in Melbourne; † 2. Mai 1997 in Locarno) war ein australischer Physiologe und Nobelpreisträger. Mit seinen Forschungen zur Reizweiterleitung von Nervenzellen trug er entscheidend dazu bei, die Vorgänge… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • John Carew Eccles — Infobox Scientist name = Sir John Eccles image width = 150px caption = John Eccles, shown here at his lab bench birth date = birth date|1903|1|27|mf=y birth place = Melbourne, Australia death date = death date and age|1997|5|2|1903|1|27 death… …   Wikipedia

  • John Carew Eccles — El psiquíatra de Bohemia Cyril Höschl y Sir John Carew Eccles (1993). Sir John Carew Eccles ( * 27 de enero de 1903; Northcote, Victoria, Australia 2 de mayo de 1997, Locarno, Suiza) fue un neurofisiólogo australiano. Estudió medicina en la… …   Wikipedia Español

  • John Carew Eccles — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Eccles (homonymie). Eccles et Hoschl. Sir John Carew Eccles, né le 27 janvier 1903 à …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Medizinnobelpreis 1963: John Carew Eccles — Alan Lloyd Hodgkin — Andrew Fielding Huxley —   Die drei Physiologen wurden gemeinsam für ihre Entdeckungen bezüglich der ionischen Mechanismen, die bei Erregung und Hemmung in peripheren und zentralen Bereichen der Nervenzellenmembran eine Rolle spielen, ausgezeichnet.    Biografien   Sir… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Eccles — Sir John Carew …   Scientists

  • Eccles — noun Australian physiologist noted for his research on the conduction of impulses by nerve cells (1903 1997) • Syn: ↑John Eccles, ↑Sir John Carew Eccles • Instance Hypernyms: ↑physiologist …   Useful english dictionary

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