Rotblat , Joseph
- (1908–) Polish–British physicistRotblat was educated at the University of Warsaw. In 1939 he was appointed to a research fellowship at the University of Liverpool to work on neutron fission in the laboratory of James Chadwick. Like many other Europeans, he worked during World War II at Los Alamos on the development of the atom bomb. But unlike most other scientists as soon as it was clear in early 1945 that Germany was defeated and would be unable to produce a nuclear weapon in time, Rotblat felt unable to justify working any longer on the development of such weapons. He was also alarmed by the attitude of some of his senior colleagues. General Groves, for example, the head of the Manhattan Project, was overheard by Rotblat insisting that the real purpose of the bomb was to subdue Soviet Russia.Consequently he resigned from Los Alamos, arousing the deep suspicion of the security officers who suspected him of being a Soviet agent, and returned to Liverpool in early 1945. He remained at Liverpool until 1950 when he was appointed professor of physics at Bart's Hospital Medical College, a position he held until his retirement in 1976. Rotblat's scientific work was mainly concerned with radiation medicine.He did, however, concern himself with other matters. After the explosion of the H-bomb on Bikini atoll, the Atomic Energy Commission reported that the fallout from this and all other explosions was no more damaging to the individual than the exposure received from a single diagnostic x-ray. The announcement did nothing to reassure Rotblat. The Bikini bomb, he worked out independently, would have been much more dangerous than the authorities admitted. Further, he reasoned, chest x-rays screen only chests; nuclear bombs radiated the whole body including wombs, ovaries, and testicles.Rotblat was determined not to let the matter rest. He drafted an appeal for peace, backed by Bertrand Russell and Albert Einstein among others, to be delivered to world leaders. He realized, however, that something more permanent and constructive was needed. Consequently he set about raising money to hold a series of conferences in which technical matters could be debated, authoritative proposals made, and contacts established between scientists from different disciplines and countries.The American millionaire Cyrus Eaton offered to finance the first conference as long as it was held in the Nova Scotian fishing village of Pugwash, Eaton's birthplace. The first conference was held in 1957 and was attended by 22 scientists. Known as Pugwash conferences, ever since they have continued to be held around the world. Rotblat served as the Secretary-General of Pugwash from its inception until 1973. Since 1988 he has held the office of Pugwash President.Rotblat was awarded the 1995 Nobel Peace Prize, an award he shared with the organization he helped to found, the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs. The award was made, the Nobel committee announced, to mark the 50th anniversary of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and to protest against French nuclear tests in the Pacific.
Scientists. Academic. 2011.
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Rotblat,Joseph — Rot·blat (rŏtʹblăt ), Joseph. Born 1908. Polish born British physicist who developed medical applications for radioactivity. An outspoken opponent of nuclear weapons, he won the 1995 Nobel Peace Prize. * * * … Universalium
Rotblat, Joseph — (b. 1908) British scientist. Born in Warsaw, he was professor of physics at the University of London. He received the Nobel Peace Prize and a knighthood … Dictionary of Jewish Biography
Joseph Rotblat — Józef Rotblat (né le 4 novembre 1908 à Łódź en Pologne et décédé le 31 août 2005), était un physicien britannique. Il est le seul scientifique à avoir quitté le projet Manhattan avant la destruction d Hiroshima en août 1945. Dans le but d éveille … Wikipédia en Français
Joseph Rotblat — Infobox Scientist name = Joseph Rotblat KCMG CBE FRS image size = 130px caption = ID badge photo from Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1944. birth date = birth date|1908|11|4|df=y birth place = Warsaw, flagicon|POL Poland, death date = Death date… … Wikipedia
Joseph Rotblat — Józef Rotblat (Foto auf seinem Los Alamos Dienstausweis während des 2. Weltkriegs) Sir Józef Rotblat (* 4. November 1908 in Łódź; † 31. August 2005 in London; auch: Josef oder Joseph Rotblat) war ein polnisch britischer Physiker. Als Kernphysi … Deutsch Wikipedia
Rotblat — Józef Rotblat (Foto auf seinem Los Alamos Dienstausweis während des 2. Weltkriegs) Sir Józef Rotblat (* 4. November 1908 in Łódź; † 31. August 2005 in London; auch: Josef oder Joseph Rotblat) war ein polnisch britischer Physiker. Als Kernphy … Deutsch Wikipedia
Joseph Rotblat — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Foto de Joseph Rotblat en los tiempos del proyecto Manhattan Józef Rotblat (4 de noviembre de 1908 31 de agosto de 2005) fue un físico nuclear polaco que colaboró con el diseño de la bomba atómica, pero después… … Wikipedia Español
ROTBLAT, SIR JOSEPH — (1911–2005), physicist and Nobel Peace Prize laureate. Rotblat was born in Warsaw, Poland, and became a U.K. citizen in 1945. He graduated with an M.A. in physics from the Free University of Poland (1932) and a doctorate in physics from the… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Rotblat — [ rɔtblæt], Joseph, britischer Physiker polnischer Herkunft, * Warschau 4. 11. 1908; floh 1939 nach Großbritannien und beteiligte sich in den USA am Bau der Atombombe. Nach der Niederlage Deutschlands verließ Rotblat das Manhattan Projekt und… … Universal-Lexikon
Rotblat — (izg. ròtblet), Joseph (1908) DEFINICIJA britanski fizičar i žestoki borac protiv nuklearnog naoružanja; potpisnik Russell Einsteinovog manifesta, dobitnik Nobelove nagrade za mir 1995 … Hrvatski jezični portal