Riemann , (Georg Friedrich) Bernhard

(1826–1866) German mathematician
Riemann was born at Breselenz in Germany and, before studying mathematics in earnest, studied theology in preparation for the priesthood at his father's request. Fortunately he was able to persuade his father, a Lutheran pastor, that his real talents lay elsewhere than in theology. He attended the University of Göttingen and his mathematical abilities were such that his doctoral thesis won the rarely given praise of Karl Friedrich Gauss. After gaining his doctorate Riemann worked on the inaugural lecture necessary in order to gain the post ofPrivatdozent at Göttingen and this too gained Gauss's praise. Eventually Riemann succeeded his friend, Lejeune Dirichlet, as professor of mathematics at Göttingen in 1859 but by then his health had begun to decline and he died of tuberculosis while on holiday in Italy.
Riemann's work ranges from pure mathematics to mathematical physics and he made influential contributions to both. His first mathematical work was on the functions of a complex variable. His work in analysis was profoundly important. The Riemann integral is a definite integral formally defined in terms of the limit of a summation of elements as the number of elements tends to infinity and their size becomes infinitesimally small.
One of Riemann's most famous pieces of work was in geometry. This was initiated in his inaugural lecture of 1854 that so impressed Gauss, entitled “Concerning the Hypotheses that Underlie Geometry.” What Riemann did was to consider the whole question of what a geometry was from a much more general perspective than anyone had previously done. Riemann asked questions, such as how could concepts like curvature and distance be defined, in such a way as to be applicable to geometries that were not Euclidean. Janós Bolyai and Nikolai Lobachevsky (and, at the time unknown to everyone, Gauss) had developed particular non-Euclidean geometries, but Riemann went further and opened up the possibility of a range of geometries different from Euclid's. This work had far-reaching consequences, not just in pure mathematics but also in the theory of relativity.
Riemann was also interested in applied mathematics and physics and was a coworker of Wilhelm Weber.

Scientists. . 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Riemann,Georg Friedrich Bernhard — Rie·mann (rēʹmən, män ), Georg Friedrich Bernhard. 1826 1866. German mathematician who was a pioneer of non Euclidean geometry and complex analysis. * * * …   Universalium

  • Riemann, (Georg Friedrich) Bernhard — (17 sep. 1826, Breselenz, Hannover, Alemania–20 jul. 1866, Selasca, Italia). Matemático alemán. Estudió en las universidades de Berlín y de Gotinga; con posterioridad enseñó principalmente en Gotinga. Su disertación (1851) fue en teoría de… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Riemann, (Georg Friedrich) Bernhard — born Sept. 17, 1826, Breselenz, Hanover died July 20, 1866, Selasca, Italy German mathematician. He studied at the Universities of Berlin and Göttingen and later taught principally at Göttingen. His dissertation (1851) was on function theory. He… …   Universalium

  • Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann — Bernhard Riemann Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann (* 17. September 1826 in Breselenz bei Dannenberg (Elbe); † 20. Juli 1866 in Selasca bei Verbania am Lago Maggiore) war ein deutscher Mathem …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann — Bernhard Riemann Pour les articles homonymes, voir Riemann. Bernhard Riemann Bernhard Riemann …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann — noun pioneer of non Euclidean geometry (1826 1866) • Syn: ↑Riemann, ↑Bernhard Riemann • Derivationally related forms: ↑Riemannian (for: ↑Riemann) • Instance Hypernyms: ↑ …   Useful english dictionary

  • Riemann — (Georg Friedrich) Bernhard …   Scientists

  • Bernhard — Bernhard, Thomas * * * (as used in expressions) Bülow, Bernhard (Heinrich Martin Karl), príncipe von Feininger, Andreas (Bernhard Lyonel) Moltke, Helmuth (Karl Bernhard), conde von Nobel, Alfred (Bernhard) Riemann, (Georg Friedrich) Bernhard …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Riemann — (Georg Friedrich Bernhard) (1826 1866) mathématicien allemand. Il fit considérablement progresser de nombr. branches des mathématiques. Dans sa géométrie, non euclidienne, les perpendiculaires à une droite Delta concourent en un point S, et la… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Bernhard Riemann — Para otros usos de este término, véase Riemann (desambiguación). Bernhard Riemann Bernhard Riemann, 1863 Nacimiento …   Wikipedia Español

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