- Maupertuis , Pierre-Louis Moreau de
*(1698–1759) French mathematician, physicist, and astronomer*Maupertuis, who was born at Saint-Malo in northwest France, joined the army as a youth, leaving in 1723 to teach mathematics at the French Academy of Sciences in Paris. He traveled to England in 1728 where he became an admirer of Isaac Newton's work and was made a member of the Royal Society of London. He was responsible for introducing Newton's theories on gravitation into France on his return.In 1736 Maupertuis led an expedition to Lapland to verify Newton's hypothesis that the Earth is not perfectly spherical by measuring the length of a degree of longitude. This was successful and as a result Maupertuis was invited by Frederick the Great to join his Academy of Sciences in Berlin.Maupertius is best known as being, in 1744, one of the first to formulate the principle of least action, which was published in his*Essai de cosmologie*(1750; Essay on Cosmology). A similar principle had previously been formulated by Leonhard Euler as a result of his mathematical work on the calculus of variations, whereas Maupertuis had been led to formulate his version of the principle through his work in optics. In particular Maupertuis's attention was drawn to the need for such a principle by his interest in the work of Willebrord Snell and Pierre de Fermat. Fermat had shown how to explain Snell's law of refraction, which describes the behavior of a ray of light at the boundary of two media of different densities on the assumption that a ray of light takes the least time possible in traveling from the first medium to the second. However, Fermat's explanation implied that light travels more slowly in a denser medium and Maupertuis set out to devise an explanation of Snell's law that did not have this, to him, objectionable consequence. Maupertuis thought of his principle as the fundamental principle of mechanics, and expected that all other mechanical laws ought to be derivable from it. He attempted to derive from his principle a proof of the existence of God.Maupertuis was not a mathematician of Euler's stature and his version of the principle was not as precisely formulated mathematically. However, his attempts to apply it to a much wider range of problems made it an influential formative principle in 18th- and 19th-century physical thinking. Joseph Lagrange, in his work on the calculus of variations, dispensed with the teleological and theological trimmings Maupertuis had given the principle and found wide application for it in mechanics. Subsequently the principle became less influential until it was revived and refined by William Hamilton.Maupertuis, who had a quarrelsome character, became involved in violent controversy over the principle. Samuel König, another scientist at Frederick's court, claimed that it had been formulated earlier by Gottfried Liebniz. Maupertuis found himself on the receiving end of some of Voltaire's most biting satires, and eventually he was hounded out of Berlin.

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**Maupertuis, Pierre-Louis Moreau de**— (1698 1759) mathematician, naturalist Pierre Louis Moreau de Maupertuis, who introduced the theories of isaac Newton to France, was born in saint Malo. in 1736 37, he planned and led an expedition for the Academy of Sciences to Lapland to… … France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present**Maupertuis, Pierre-Louis Moreau de**— ▪ French mathematician and astronomer born Sept. 28, 1698, Saint Malo, France died July 27, 1759, Basel, Switz. French mathematician, biologist, and astronomer who helped popularize Newtonian mechanics. Maupertuis became a member of… … Universalium**Maupertuis, Pierre Louis Moreau de**— ► (1698 1759) Geómetra y físico francés. Se le debe la formulación del principio de mínima acción … Enciclopedia Universal**MAUPERTUIS, PIERRE LOUIS MOREAU DE**— French mathematician and astronomer, born at St. Malo; went to Lapland to measure a degree of longitude, to ascertain the figure of the earth; wrote a book On the Figure of the Earth ; was invited to Berlin by Frederick the Great, and made… … The Nuttall Encyclopaedia**Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis**— Pierre Louis de Maupertuis Pierre Louis Moreau de Maupertuis (* 28. September 1698 in Saint Malo; † 27. Juli 1759 in Basel) war ein französischer Mathematiker, Astronom und Philosoph, der das Prinzip der kleinsten … Deutsch Wikipedia**Pierre Louis Moreau de Maupertuis**— Pierre Louis de Maupertuis Pierre Louis Moreau de Maupertuis (* 7. Juli 1698, Saint Malo; † 27. Juli 1759, Basel) war ein französischer Mathematiker, Astronom und Philosoph, der das Prinzip der kleinsten Wirkung … Deutsch Wikipedia**Pierre louis moreau de maupertuis**— Pierre Louis de Maupertuis Pierre Louis Moreau de Maupertuis, né le 7 juillet 1698 à Saint Malo et mort à Bâle le 27 juillet 1759, est un mathématicien et astronome français … Wikipédia en Français**Pierre Louis Moreau de Maupertuis**— Pour les articles homonymes, voir Moreau et Maupertuis. Pierre Louis Moreau de Maupertuis Philosophe et Scientifique Époque Moderne … Wikipédia en Français**Pierre-Louis de Maupertuis**— Pierre Louis Moreau de Maupertuis (* 7. Juli 1698, Saint Malo; † 27. Juli 1759, Basel) war ein französischer Mathematiker, Astronom und Philosoph, der das Prinzip der kleinsten Wirkung … Deutsch Wikipedia**Pierre Louis Maupertuis**— Pierre Louis de Maupertuis Pierre Louis Moreau de Maupertuis (* 7. Juli 1698, Saint Malo; † 27. Juli 1759, Basel) war ein französischer Mathematiker, Astronom und Philosoph, der das Prinzip der kleinsten Wirkung … Deutsch Wikipedia