Lawrence , Ernest Orlando
(1901–1958) American physicist
Lawrence was the son of a superintendent of public schools in Canton, South Dakota. He was educated at the universities of South Dakota, Minnesota, Chicago, and Yale (where he obtained his PhD in 1925). He taught at Yale before moving in 1928 to the University of California at Berkeley. He was appointed professor there in 1930 and director of the radiation laboratory in 1936.
Lawrence was awarded the 1939 Nobel Prize for physics for his invention of the cyclotron. In the 1920s, experiments on bombardment of nuclei relied on low-energy linear accelerators. Lawrence, in 1930, began experiments to construct a cyclic accelerator. In this device charged particles move in spiral paths under the influence of a vertical magnetic field. The particles move inside two hollow D-shaped metal pieces arranged with a small gap between them. A high-frequency electric field applied between the ‘dees’ gives a ‘kick’ to the particle each time it crosses the gap. By early 1931 the first model (4 inches (10.2 cm) in diameter) produced energies of 13,000 electronvolts.
Subsequently, Lawrence, and other workers, developed larger machines capable of achieving much higher energies for nuclear research. Lawrence also played an important part in the development of the atomic bomb. He was responsible for developing the radiation laboratory (now named for him) into one of the world's leading centers for high-energy physics. Element 103, lawrencium, is named in his honor.

Scientists. . 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Lawrence,Ernest Orlando — Lawrence, Ernest Orlando. 1901 1958. American physicist. He won a 1939 Nobel Prize for the development of the cyclotron. * * * …   Universalium

  • Lawrence, Ernest Orlando — ▪ American physicist born Aug. 8, 1901, Canton, S.D., U.S. died Aug. 27, 1958, Palo Alto, Calif.  American physicist, winner of the 1939 Nobel Prize for Physics for his invention of the cyclotron, the first particle accelerator to achieve high… …   Universalium

  • Lawrence, Ernest Orlando — ► (1901 58) Físico estadounidense. Fue premio Nobel de Física en 1939, por el perfeccionamiento del ciclotrón …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Ernest Orlando Lawrence — Ernest Lawrence, 1939 Ernest Orlando Lawrence (* 8. August 1901 in Canton/South Dakota; † 27. August 1958 in Palo Alto, Kalifornien) war ein US amerikanischer Atomphysiker und Nobelpreisträger. Inhaltsverzeichni …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award — The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award was established in 1959 in honor of a scientist who helped elevate American physics to world leadership.E. O. Lawrence was the inventor of the cyclotron, an accelerator of subatomic particles, and a 1939 Nobel… …   Wikipedia

  • Ernest Orlando Lawrence — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Lawrence. Ernest O. Lawrence Naissance 8 aout 1901 Canton (Dakota du Sud) (USA) …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award — Der Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award wurde 1959 zu Ehren von Ernest Lawrence, dem Erfinder des Zyklotrons und Nobelpreisträger, unmittelbar nach dessen Tod vom US amerikanischen Energieministerium gestiftet. Er ist mit 50.000 Dollar dotiert und… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ernest-Orlando-Lawrence-Preis — Der Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award wurde 1959 zu Ehren von Ernest Lawrence, dem Erfinder des Zyklotrons und Nobelpreisträger, unmittelbar nach dessen Tod vom US amerikanischen Energieministerium gestiftet. Er ist mit 50.000 Dollar dotiert und… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory — Das LBNL liegt auf einem Hügel über dem Campus der UCB mit Blick auf die San Francisco Bay. Das Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL, früher auch Berkeley Radiation Laboratory; übliche Abkürzung Berkeley Lab oder LBL) ist… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ernest Orlando Lawrence — noun United States physicist who developed the cyclotron (1901 1958) • Syn: ↑Lawrence, ↑E. O. Lawrence • Instance Hypernyms: ↑nuclear physicist …   Useful english dictionary

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