Langley , John Newport
(1852–1925) British physiologist
Langley, the son of a schoolmaster, was born in Newbury and educated at Exeter Grammar School and Cambridge University. Although he originally intended to join the Indian Civil Service, Langley fell under the influence of Michael Foster, professor of physiology at Cambridge, and turned to physiology instead. He was appointed lecturer in histology in 1884 and in 1903 he succeeded Foster as professor of physiology, a post he retained until his death.
Langley began his research career in 1875, when Foster asked him to observe the physiological effects of jaborandi juice, an alkaloid derived from an American shrub. Foster was particularly interested in its effects on the heart but Langley was more impressed by its power to evoke copious secretion, a process he spent the next 15 years studying.
His most significant work, however, was done on the autonomic nervous system, a term he himself coined in 1898. In collaboration with William Dickinson, Langley began (in 1889) to explore the sympathetic nervous System in some detail. This was made possible by the discovery that nicotine would selectively block nerve impulses at the sympathetic ganglia, enabling Langley to distinguish those nerves that actually ended at the ganglia from those that merely passed through them. Langley was thus able to show that only one ganglion lay along the sympathetic nerve on its path from the spinal cord to its goal.
In 1901 Langley followed this by exploring the problem of how nerves communicate with the muscle cells with which they form junctions. Basically the sympathetic system increases heartbeat, raises blood pressure, and contracts smooth muscle, i.e., it prepares an animal for action. Langley noted that when an extract from the adrenal gland was injected into an animal, these responses were produced. It was left to the British physician Thomas Elliott, a pupil of Langley, to propose that it was the adrenal extract, later termed adrenaline (epinephrine), that was released from sympathetic nerves to stimulate muscle.
Langley later published the details of his work in his Autonomic Nervous System (1921).

Scientists. . 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • John Newport Langley — John Newport Langley, fisiólogo y farmacólogo británico. Nació en Newbury el 10 de noviembre de 1852 y murió el 5 de noviembre de 1925. Realizó importantes contribuciones sobre las funciones nerviosas de fármacos y venenos, trabajó sobre la… …   Wikipedia Español

  • John Newport Langley — (* 2. November 1852 in Newbury, Berkshire, England; † 5. November 1925 in Cambridge) war ein britischer Physiologe und Histologe. Langley besuchte die Grammar School von Exeter und danach das St John’s College der Universität Cambridge. Er… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • John Newport Langley — Infobox Scientist name = John Newport Langley birth date = birth date|1852|11|2|mf=y birth place = Newbury, UK death date = death date and age|1925|11|5|1852|11|2|mf=y death place = Cambridge, UK residence = nationality = field = Physiologist… …   Wikipedia

  • Langley — heißen die Orte im Vereinigten Königreich: Langley (Cheshire) Langley (Essex) Langley (Hampshire) Abbots Langley (Hertfordshire) Kings Langley (Hertfordshire) Langley (Kent) Langley (Northumberland) Langley (Slough) in Berkshire (auch Langley… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Langley —   [ læȖli],    1) Eve, australische Schriftstellerin, * Forbes (New South Wales) 1. 9. 1904, ✝ Katoomba (New South Wales) zwischen 1. und 13. 6. 1974; verfasste zwei Romane, »The pea pickers« (1942) und »White topee« (1954), die auf komisch… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Langley ganglion granules nerves — Lang·ley ganglion, granules, nerves (langґle) [John Newport Langley, English physiologist, 1852–1925] see under ganglion and granule, and see pilomotor nerves, under nerve …   Medical dictionary

  • Newport (IOW) F.C. — Newport (Isle of Wight) Full name Newport (Isle of Wight) Football Club Nickname(s) The Port Founded 1888 …   Wikipedia

  • Newport News, Virginia — This article is about the city in Virginia. For the shipyard formerly known as Newport News , see Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding Newport News. City of Newport News City Center at Oyster Point …   Wikipedia

  • John D. W. Corley — Infobox Military Person name=John D.W. Corley born= died= caption=General John D.W. Corley nickname= placeofbirth= placeofdeath= placeofburial= allegiance=flag|United States of America branch=air force|USA serviceyears=1973–present rank= General… …   Wikipedia

  • John M. Riebe — Infobox Scientist name = John Michael Riebe box width = image width = caption = birth date = birth date|1921|5|8|df=y birth place = Lansford, Pennsylvania death date = death place = residence = Newport News, Virginia citizenship = nationality =… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”