Landau , Lev Davidovich
(1908–1968) Azerbaijani theoretical physicist
Landau, whose father was a petroleum engineer and whose mother was a physician, was born in Baku, the capital of Azerbaijan. He studied at the university in his native city (1922–24) and at Leningrad (now St. Petersburg) (1924–27), graduating in 1927. In 1929 he visited various scientific centers in Europe, including Copenhagen where he developed a long-lasting friendship and working relationship with Niels Bohr. He returned to the Soviet Union and in 1932 went from Leningrad to Kharkov to head the theoretical physics groups at two of the institutes there. He was appointed professor of physics at Kharkov University in 1935. In 1937, at the request of Pyotr Kapitza, he moved to Moscow as director of theoretical physics at the Institute of Physical Problems and in 1943 became professor of physics at the Moscow State University.
Landau was one of the major theoretical physicists of his day, making numerous contributions to many branches of physics. These included quantum mechanics, atomic and nuclear physics, astrophysics, thermodynamics, particle physics, quantum electrodynamics, and low-temperature physics. In Moscow he collaborated with E.M. Lifshitz on a highly successful series of monographs on theoretical physics, published in 1938. In 1962 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics for his work on condensed matter (i.e., matter in the solid or liquid state), especially liquid helium. Liquid helium has such unusual properties when its temperature falls below 2.2 kelvin that physicists describe it as helium II, as opposed to helium I above 2.2 K. To explain the strange superfluidity and superconductivity of helium II, Landau introduced the idea of a ‘phonon’, a quantum of thermal energy, and a ‘roton’, an elementary quantum of vortex motion. The existence of such entities has since been confirmed experimentally.
Under Landau a vigorous school of theoretical physics was created in Moscow. Tragically he was involved in a serious motor accident in 1962 and although strenuous efforts were made to keep him alive his physical powers never returned to normal and he died six years later.

Scientists. . 2011.

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  • LANDAU, LEV DAVIDOVICH — (1908–1968), Russian physicist and Nobel Prize winner. Born in Baku, Landau was a young prodigy in mathematics and was allowed to register at Baku University in the faculties of chemistry, physics, and mathematics at the age of 14, and graduated… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Landau,Lev Davidovich — Lan·dau (län douʹ), Lev Davidovich. 1908 1968. Soviet physicist. He won a 1962 Nobel Prize for his contributions to low temperature physics. * * * …   Universalium

  • Landau, Lev Davidovich — ▪ Russian physicist born Jan. 9 [Jan. 22, New Style], 1908, Baku, Russian Empire (now Azerbaijan) died April 1, 1968, Moscow, Russia, U.S.S.R.  Soviet theoretical physicist, one of the founders of the quantum theory of condensed matter whose… …   Universalium

  • Landau, Lev (Davidovich) — born Jan. 22, 1908, Baku, Azerbaijan, Russian Empire died April 1, 1968, Moscow, Russia, U.S.S.R. Soviet physicist. After graduating from Leningrad State University, he studied at Niels Bohr s institute in Copenhagen. He is known for his work in… …   Universalium

  • Landau, Lev Davidovich — (1908–68)    Russian physicist and Nobel laureate, 1962. A child prodigy in mathematics, Landau had completed his formal studies in mathematics and physics at the universities of Baku (his birthplace) and Leningrad by the age of nineteen. He… …   Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament

  • Landau, Lev Davidovich — (1908 68)    Russian physicist. Born in Baku, he studied at the University of Baku and the University of Leningrad. In 1929 he went to Copenhagen to study with Niels Bohr. From 1932 he was employed at the Ukrainian Physico Technical Institute at… …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • Lev Davidovich Landau — Lev Landau Pour les articles homonymes, voir Landau. Lev Davidovitch Landau (en russe : Лев Давидович Ландау) (22 janvier 1908 1er avril 1968) était un physicien théoricien russe, prix Nobel de physique en 1962 pour ses… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Lev Davidovich Landau — (Лев Давидович Ландау) (22 de enero de 1908 1 de abril de 1968) fue un físico y matemático de la Unión Soviética, nacido en Bakú, Azerbaiyán. Tuvo un amplio campo de trabajo, que incluye la teoría de la superconductividad y la superfluidez, la …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Lev Davidovich Landau — noun Soviet physicist who worked on low temperature physics (1908 1968) • Syn: ↑Landau • Instance Hypernyms: ↑physicist …   Useful english dictionary

  • Lev Landau — Infobox Scientist name = Lev Davidovich Landau imagesize = 170px birth date = birth date|1908|1|22|mf=y birth place = Baku, Russian Empire death date = death date and age|1968|4|1|1908|1|22 death place = Moscow, Soviet Union field = Physics alma… …   Wikipedia

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