Köhler , Georges J. F.
(1946–1995) German immunologist
Born at Munich in Germany, Köhler was educated at the University of Freiburg, receiving his doctorate in 1974. He then worked in Cambridge at the Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology (1974–76) and at the Basel Institute for Immunology (1977–84). In 1985 he was appointed director of the Max Planck Institute for Immunology in Freiburg.
In 1975, Köhler's work at the MRC Laboratory in Cambridge with the molecular biologist César Milstein, yielded the first monoclonal antibody, i.e., antibody of one specific type manufactured by a culture of genetically identical cells, representing a single clone. This proved to be one of the major scientific breakthroughs of the decade, as anticipated by Köhler and Milstein in their letter to Nature briefly describing their achievement, published on August 7 1975: “Such cells can be grown in vitro in massive cultures to provide specific antibody. Such cultures could be valuable for medical and industrial use.”
The technique of Köhler and Milstein involved fusing a white blood cell (lymphocyte), which manufactures antibody but has a short lifespan, with a cancer cell, which ensures continuous production of the antibody. Specifically, lymphocytes were obtained from the spleen of a mouse that had previously been injected with sheep red blood cells (the antigen) to stimulate antibody production in the mouse cells. The lymphocytes were then mixed with cells from a bone-marrow tumor culture to create a hybridoma – an antibody-secreting cell line.
Köhler and Milstein later adapted their technique to produce a range of hybridoma cultures, each manufacturing pure antibody to specific known antigen. Monoclonal antibodies have revolutionized biological and medical diagnostic tests and assays and have found applications in various therapeutic techniques. Their great advantage is that they can be tailor-made to target a particular type of cell or subcellular component, and used as a vehicle for precision delivery of powerful drugs.
For their achievement, Köhler and Milstein shared the 1984 Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine with Niels Jerne.

Scientists. . 2011.

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  • Kohler, Georges J.F. — ▪ 1996       German immunologist (b. April 17, 1946, Munich, Germany d. March 1, 1995, Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany), shared the 1984 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his contribution to the discovery (1975) of a method of producing… …   Universalium

  • Georges J. F. Köhler — Georges Jean Franz Köhler (* 17. April 1946 in München; † 1. März 1995 in Freiburg im Breisgau) war ein deutscher Biologe. Nach seinem Abitur in Kehl begann Köhler 1965 ein Studium der Biologie an der Universität Freiburg im Breisgau, das er 1971 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • Georges J.F. Köhler — Georges Köhler Georges Jean Franz Köhler fréquemment appelé Georges J.F. Köhler (Munich, 17 mars 1946 Fribourg en Brisgau, 1er mars 1995) était un biologiste allemand. Biographie Il a reçu, avec César Milstein et Niels Jerne,… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Georges J. F. Köhler — Georges Köhler Georges Jean Franz Köhler fréquemment appelé Georges J.F. Köhler (Munich, 17 mars 1946 Fribourg en Brisgau, 1er mars 1995) était un biologiste allemand. Biographie Il a reçu, avec César Milstein et Niels Jerne,… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Georges J.F. Köhler — nació en Munich, Alemania en 1945. Estudió Filosofía y Biología en la Universidad de Friburgo de Brisgovia, se doctoró en el Instituto de Inmunología de Basilea. Inició sus trabajos en el Laboratorio de Biología Molecular de Cambridge Junto con… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Georges J. F. Köhler — Infobox Scientist name = Georges Jean Franz Köhler box width = image width =150px caption = Georges Jean Franz Köhler birth date = March 17 1946 birth place = Munich death date = March 1 1995 death place = Freiburg im Breisgau residence =… …   Wikipedia

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  • Köhler —  Cette page d’homonymie répertorie des personnes (réelles ou fictives) partageant un même patronyme.  Pour les articles homophones, voir Kohler, Koehler et Koller. August Köhler (1866 1948), scientifique allemand spécialisée en… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Georges Franz Köhler — Georges Jean Franz Köhler (* 17. April 1946 in München; † 1. März 1995 in Freiburg im Breisgau) war ein deutscher Biologe. Nach seinem Abitur in Kehl begann Köhler 1965 ein Studium der Biologie an der Universität Freiburg im Breisgau, das er 1971 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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