Klitzing , Klaus von
(1943–) German physicist
Von Klitzing was born at Poznan but when the town was restored to Poland after 1945 his family moved to West Germany. He was educated at the universities of Brunswick and Würzburg, where he received his PhD in 1972 and where he remained as a teaching fellow until 1980. After Klitzing served as professor of physics at the Technical University, Munich, from 1980 to 1984, he was appointed director of solid-state research at the Max Planck Institute, Stuttgart.
In 1980 von Klitzing began work on the Hall effect, first described by Edwin Hall in 1879. Hall noted that when a current flows in a conductor placed in a magnetic field perpendicular to the sample's surface, a potential difference (the Hall voltage) is produced acting at right angles to both the current and field directions. It is possible to measure a Hall resistance, defined in the normal way by dividing the Hall voltage by the current it produces.
Von Klitzing set out to make extremely precise measurements of the Hall resistance working with a two-dimensional electron gas. This can be formed by using a special kind of transistor in which electrons can be drawn into a layer between an insulator and a semiconductor. When the layer is thin enough, of the order of 1 nanometer (10–9 meter), and the temperature is as low as 1.5K, the electrons are forced into a two-dimensional plane parallel to the surface of the semiconductor.
Under normal conditions the Hall resistance increases directly with the strength of the magnetic field. In contrast von Klitzing found that under his experimental conditions the resistance became quantized, varying in a series of steps as the magnetic field was changed. Von Klitzing went on to establish that the Hall resistance at each step was a function of Planck's constant h, the fundamental constant of quantum theory, and could be used to measure h very accurately. For his discovery of the quantized Hall effect von Klitzing was awarded the 1985 Nobel Prize for physics.

Scientists. . 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Klitzing, Klaus von — ▪ German physicist born June 28, 1943, Schroda [Sroda], German occupied Poland       German physicist who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1985 for his discovery that under appropriate conditions the resistance offered by an electrical… …   Universalium

  • Klitzing, Klaus von — ► (n. 1943) Físico alemán. Fue premio Nobel de Física en 1985, por su contribución al conocimiento del efecto Hall cuántico …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Klaus Von Klitzing — Klaus von Klitzing est un physicien allemand (né le 28 juin 1943 à Środa Wielkopolska), prix Nobel de physique en 1985, pour sa découverte de l effet Hall quantique entier faite dans le laboratoire des champs magnétiques intenses …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Klaus von klitzing — Klaus von Klitzing est un physicien allemand (né le 28 juin 1943 à Środa Wielkopolska), prix Nobel de physique en 1985, pour sa découverte de l effet Hall quantique entier faite dans le laboratoire des champs magnétiques intenses …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Klaus von Klitzing — (28 juin 1943 à Środa Wielkopolska, Allemagne) est un physicien allemand. Il est lauréat du prix Nobel de physique de 1985 « pour la découverte de l effet Hall quantique entier …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Klaus von Klitzing — Infobox Scientist birth date = birth date and age|1943|6|28 name = Klaus von Klitzing imagesize= 200px nationality=Germany field = Physics known for = Quantum Hall Effect prizes = Nobel Prize in Physics (1985) religion = Roman Catholic footnotes …   Wikipedia

  • Klaus von Klitzing — Leben mit dem Nobelpreis —   Würde und Bürde der höchsten Ehre   Einen Nobelpreis zu bekommen scheint grundverschieden von allen anderen Ehrungen in der Forschung: Die begehrte Wissenschaftstrophäe macht die Laureaten über Nacht weltweit zu Stars in ihrem Fach und in den… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Klaus von Klitzing — Klaus Olaf von Klitzing (* 28. Juni 1943 in Schroda, Reichsgau Wartheland) ist ein deutscher Physiker. Er erhielt 1985 den Nobelpreis für Physik „für die Entdeckung des so genannten quantisierten Hall Effekts“ im Grenobler Hochfeld Magnetlabor am …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • Klaus von Klitzing — es un científico alemán, nacido en Schroda en 1943, en la provincia ahora polaca de Posen. Tras obtener el doctorado en ciencias físicas, se dedica por entero a la investigación y ocupa un puesto de alta dirección en el Instituto Max Planck de… …   Enciclopedia Universal

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