Hopper , Grace
(1906–1992) American mathematician and computer scientist
Hopper, born Grace Murray, was educated at Vassar and at Yale, where she gained her PhD in 1934. She taught at Vassar until 1944, when she enlisted in the US Naval Reserve and was immediately assigned to Harvard to work with Howard Aiken on the Mark I computer, the ASCC (Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator), for which she wrote the manual. Although she hoped to remain in the Navy after the war, her age prevented this and she had to be satisfied with the Naval reserve as a second choice. Consequently she remained at Harvard working on the Mark II and the Mark III computers.
In 1949 Hopper moved to Philadelphia to work with J. P. Eckhart and John Mauchly on the development of BINAC and remained with the company, despite several changes of ownership, until 1967. During this period she made a number of basic contributions to computer programming. In 1952 she devised the first compiler, a program that translated a high-level language into machine code, named A-O. She went on to produce a data-processing compiler known as Flow-matic.
It was apparent by this time to Hopper and other programmers that the business world lacked an agreed and adequate computer language. Hopper lobbied for a combined effort from the large computer companies and consequently a committee was established in 1959 under the guidance of the Defense Department to develop a common business language. Although she did not serve on the committee, the language developed by them, COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language), was derived in many respects from Flow-matic. For this reason Hopper has often been referred to as ‘the mother of COBOL’.
Although Hopper was forced through age to resign from the US Naval reserve in 1966 she was recalled a year later to work on their payroll program. She remained in the Naval reserve until 1986, having by then been promoted to the rank of rear admiral in 1985.

Scientists. . 2011.

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  • Hopper, Grace — ● np. m. ►PERS (9 déc. 1907 1er jan. 1992). Titulaire d une maîtrise et d un doctorat de mathématiques à Yale, Grace Brewster Murray Hopper a travaillé dans la Marine des É U dès la naissance des ordinateurs, en 1943; travaillant d abord en 1951… …   Dictionnaire d'informatique francophone

  • Hopper,Grace Murray — Hopper, Grace Murray. 1906 1992. American mathematician and computer programmer. Noted for her development of programming languages, especially COBOL, she is credited with inventing the first compiler. * * * …   Universalium

  • Hopper, Grace Murray — orig. Grace Brewster Murray born Dec. 9, 1906, New York, N.Y., U.S. died Jan. 1, 1992, Arlington, Va. U.S. mathematician and rear admiral. She received a Ph.D. from Yale University in 1934 and taught at Vassar College in 1931–44. As a U.S. Navy… …   Universalium

  • Hopper, Grace Murray — orig. Grace Brewster Murray (9 dic. 1906, Nueva York, N.Y., EE.UU.–1 ene. 1992, Arlington, Va.). Matemático y vicealmirante estadounidense. Recibió su Ph.D. en la Universidad de Yale en 1934 y ejerció la docencia en el Vassar College en 1931–44.… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Grace Murray Hopper — (20 de enero de 1984) …   Wikipedia Español

  • Grace Brewster Murray Hopper — Grace Hopper (Januar 1984) Grace Brewster Murray Hopper (* 9. Dezember 1906 in New York City; † 1. Januar 1992 in Arlington, Virginia) war eine US amerikanische Informatikerin und Computerpionierin. Sie war im letzten Dienstgrad Konteradmiral der …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Grace Murray Hopper — Grace Hopper (Januar 1984) Grace Brewster Murray Hopper (* 9. Dezember 1906 in New York City; † 1. Januar 1992 in Arlington, Virginia) war eine US amerikanische Informatikerin und Computerpionierin. Sie war im letzten Dienstgrad Konteradmiral der …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Grace Brewster Murray Hopper — Grace Hopper Grace Hopper en 1984 Grace Murray Hopper (9 décembre 1906 1er janvier 1992) est une informaticienne et amiral de la marine américaine. Elle est la conceptrice du premier compilateur en 1951 ( …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Grace Murray Hopper — Grace Hopper Grace Hopper en 1984 Grace Murray Hopper (9 décembre 1906 1er janvier 1992) est une informaticienne et amiral de la marine américaine. Elle est la conceptrice du premier compilateur en 1951 ( …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Grace Brewster Murray — Grace Hopper Grace Hopper en 1984 Grace Murray Hopper (9 décembre 1906 1er janvier 1992) est une informaticienne et amiral de la marine américaine. Elle est la conceptrice du premier compilateur en 1951 ( …   Wikipédia en Français

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