Avery , Oswald Theodore
(1877–1955) American bacteriologist
Avery was born in Halifax, the capital of Nova Scotia, Canada. Educated at Colgate University, he received his AB in 1900 and his medical degree in 1904. After a time at the Hoagland Laboratory, New York, as a lecturer and researcher in bacteriology, he joined the Rockefeller Institute Hospital (1913–48). While investigating the pneumococcus bacteria responsible for causing lobar pneumonia, Avery found that the bacteria produced soluble substances, derived from the cell wall and identified as polysaccharides, that were specific in their chemical composition for each different type of pneumococcus. This work provided a basis for establishing the immunologic identity of a cell in biochemical terms.
In 1932 Avery started work on the phenomenon of transformation in bacteria. It had already been shown that heat-killed cells of a virulent pneumococcus strain could transform a living avirulent strain into the virulent form. In 1944 Avery and his colleagues Maclyn McCarty and Colin MacLeod, extracted and purified the transforming substance and showed it to be deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Previously it had been thought that protein was the hereditary material and thus Avery's work was an important step toward the eventual discovery, made nine years later by James Watson and Francis Crick, of the chemical basis of heredity.

Scientists. . 2011.

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  • Avery, Oswald Theodore — Avery , Oswald Theodore …   Scientists

  • Avery, Oswald (Theodore) — born Oct. 21, 1877, Halifax, N.S., Can. died Feb. 20, 1955, Nashville, Tenn., U.S. Canadian born U.S. bacteriologist. He studied at Colgate University before taking a post at New York s Rockefeller Institute Hospital. There he discovered… …   Universalium

  • Avery, Oswald (Theodore) — (21 oct. 1877, Halifax, Nueva Escocia, Canadá–20 feb. 1955, Nashville, Tenn., EE.UU.). Bacteriólogo estadounidense de origen canadiense. Estudió en la Universidad Colgate antes de asumir un cargo en el Rockefeller Institute Hospital de Nueva York …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Oswald Theodore Avery — Oswald Avery. Oswald Theodore Avery (* 21. Oktober 1877 in Halifax, Nova Scotia; † 2. Februar 1955 in Nashville, Tennessee) war ein kanadischer Mediziner. Er promovierte 1904 an der Columbia University in …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Oswald Theodore Avery — Oswald Avery Pour les articles homonymes, voir Oswald et Avery. Oswald Avery. Oswald Theodore Avery ( …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Avery, Oswald — ▪ American bacteriologist in full  Oswald Theodore Avery  born Oct. 21, 1877, Halifax, N.S., Can. died Feb. 20, 1955, Nashville, Tenn., U.S.       Canadian born American bacteriologist whose research helped ascertain that DNA is the substance… …   Universalium

  • Oswald Avery — in 1937 Born …   Wikipedia

  • Oswald T. Avery — Oswald Avery. Oswald Theodore Avery (* 21. Oktober 1877 in Halifax, Nova Scotia; † 2. Februar 1955 in Nashville, Tennessee) war ein kanadischer Mediziner. Er promovierte 1904 an der Columbia University in …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Oswald Avery — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Oswald et Avery. Oswald Avery. Oswald Theodore Avery (21 octobre 1877 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Theodore — /thee euh dawr , dohr /, n. a male given name: from a Greek word meaning gift of God. * * * (as used in expressions) Agnew Spiro Theodore Avery Oswald Theodore Delacour Jean Theodore Delius Frederick Theodore Albert Dreiser Theodore Herman Albert …   Universalium

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