- Galois , Evariste
*(1811–1832) French mathematician*Galois was born at Bourg-la-Reine, near Paris, during the rule of Napoleon. He entered the Collège Royale de Louis-le-Grand in Paris in 1823 and it was here that his precocious mathematical genius first emerged. He published several papers while still a student and at the age of about 16 embarked upon his noted work on algebraic equations. But his career was marred by lack of advancement, associated with political bitterness. Twice, in 1827 and 1829, he was rejected by the Paris Ecole Polytechnique, and three papers submitted to the Academy of Sciences were rejected or lost. In 1830 he entered the Ecole Normale Supérieure to train as a teacher. That year revolution in Paris caused the abdication of Charles X, who was succeeded by Louis Philippe. Galois – fiercely republican – was expelled for writing an antiroyalist newspaper letter. In 1831 he was arrested twice: once for a speech against the king and the second time for wearing an illegal uniform and carrying arms – for this he received six-months' imprisonment. In the spring of 1832 he died in a duel; the details are uncertain but it may have been provoked by political opponents.Galois seems to have anticipated that he was to die, for the night before was spent desperately recording his mathematical ideas in a letter to his former schoolmaster, Auguste Chevalier. Here he outlined his work on elliptic integrals and set out a theory of the roots (solutions) of equations, in which he considered the properties of permutations of the roots. Admissible permutations – ones in which the roots obey the same relations after permutation – form what is now known as a*Galois group*, having properties that throw light on the solvability of the equations. The manuscripts were published in 1846 and his work recognized. With the equally tragic Norwegian, Niels Henrik Abel, he is regarded as the founder of modern group theory.

*Scientists.
Academic.
2011.*

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**Galois, Évariste**— ▪ French mathematician born October 25, 1811, Bourg la Reine, near Paris, France died May 31, 1832, Paris French mathematician famous for his contributions to the part of higher algebra now known as group theory (group). His theory provided a… … Universalium**Galois, Évariste**— (1811 1832) mathematician Born in Bourg le Reine, Évariste Galois, who was twice rejected by the École polytechnique, entered the École normale superieure in 1830, from which he was expelled a year later for publishing an article that… … France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present**Galois, Evariste**— ► (1811 32) Matemático francés. Se le considera el fundador de la teoría de los grupos algebraicos … Enciclopedia Universal**Galois**— Galois, Evariste … Enciclopedia Universal**Evariste Gallois**— Évariste Galois Pour l’article homophone, voir Gallois (homonymie). Évariste Galois … Wikipédia en Français**Evariste Galois**— Évariste Galois Pour l’article homophone, voir Gallois (homonymie). Évariste Galois … Wikipédia en Français**Galois**— Évariste Galois Pour l’article homophone, voir Gallois (homonymie). Évariste Galois … Wikipédia en Français**Evariste Galois**— Évariste Galois Évariste Galois (* 25. Oktober 1811 in Bourg la Reine; † 31. Mai 1832 in Paris) war ein französischer Mathematiker. Er starb im Alter von nur 20 Jahren bei einem Duell, erlangte allerdings durch seine Arbeiten zur Lösung… … Deutsch Wikipedia**Évariste Galois**— (* 25. Oktober 1811 in Bourg la Reine; † 31. Mai 1832 in Paris) war ein französischer Mathematiker. Er starb im Alter von nur 20 Jahren bei einem Duell, erlangte allerdings durch seine Arbeiten zur Lösung algebraische … Deutsch Wikipedia**Galois**— Évariste Galois Évariste Galois (* 25. Oktober 1811 in Bourg la Reine; † 31. Mai 1832 in Paris) war ein französischer Mathematiker. Er starb im Alter von nur 20 Jahren bei einem Duell, erlangte allerdings durch seine Arbeiten zur Lösung… … Deutsch Wikipedia