Frankland , Sir Edward
(1825–1899) British organic chemist
Born at Churchtown near Lancaster, Frankland was first apprenticed to a pharmacist in Lancaster; he was later encouraged to go to London to study chemistry under Lyon Playfair at the Royal College of Engineers (1845). He became Playfair's assistant in 1847 and studied extensively in Europe with Robert Bunsen and Justus von Liebig. He succeeded Playfair as professor of chemistry in 1850, holding the same position at Owens College, Manchester, (1851–57) and in London at St. Bartholomew's Hospital (1857), the Royal Institution (1863), and the Royal School of Mines (1865), later the Royal College of Science.
Frankland is generally credited as the originator of the theory of valence – this being the number of chemical bonds that a given atom or group can make with other atoms or groups in forming a compound. In 1852 he noticed that coordination with an alkyl group could change the combining power of a metal. He showed that the concept of valence could reconcile the radical and type theories and in 1866 he elaborated the concept of a maximum valence for each element.
In 1864, working with B.F. Duppa, Frankland pointed out that the carboxyl group (–COOH, which he called ‘oxatyl’) is a constant feature of the series of organic acids. He was also interested in applied chemistry: he investigated the luminosity of flames and his later work was in the field of coal-gas supply and water purification. He was knighted in 1897.

Scientists. . 2011.

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  • Frankland, Sir Edward — ▪ British scientist born Jan. 18, 1825, Churchtown, Lancashire, Eng. died Aug. 9, 1899, Golaa, Nor.  English chemist who was one of the first investigators in the field of structural chemistry.       While apprenticed to a druggist, Frankland… …   Universalium

  • Frankland, sir Edward — ► (1825 99) Químico británico. Descubrió los compuestos organometálicos y el helio …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • FRANKLAND, SIR EDWARD —    an eminent chemist, born at Churchtown, Lancashire; has held successively the chairs of Chemistry in Owens College, in Bartholomew s Hospital, in the Royal Institution, in the Royal College of Chemistry, and in the Normal School of Science,… …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • Frankland — Sir Edward …   Scientists

  • Frankland — Frankland, sir Edward …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Edward Frankland — Edward Frankland. Sir Edward Frankland (* 18. Januar 1825 in Churchtown bei Lancaster; † 9. August 1899 in Golaa, Gudbrandsdalen, Norwegen) war ein englischer Chemiker. Frankland synthetisierte metallorganische Verbindungen und führte den Begriff …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Edward Frankland — Sir Edward Frankland (18 janvier 1825 9 août 1899) est un chimiste britannique. Biographie Frankland naît à Churchtown, près de Lancaster. Après ses études secondaires à la Lancaster Royal Grammar School, il est …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Edward Frankland — Edward Frankland. Sir Edward Frankland (18 de enero de 1825 – 9 de agosto de 1899) fue un químico inglés. Frankland nació en Churchtown, cerca de Lancaster. Después de asistir al Lancaster Royal Grammar School, pasó seis años como un aprendiz de… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Edward Frankland — Sir Edward Frankland, KCB, FRS (January 18, 1825 ndash; August 9, 1899) was a chemist, one of the foremost of his day. [cite book | last = Russell | first = Colin A. | authorlink = | coauthors = | title = Lancastrian Chemist: The Early Years of… …   Wikipedia

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