Arber , Werner
(1929–) Swiss microbiologist
Arber, who was born in Gränichen, Switzerland, graduated from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in 1953 and gained his PhD from the University of Geneva in 1958. He spent a year at the University of Southern California before returning to Geneva where he became professor of molecular genetics in 1965. In 1971 Arber moved to Basel to take the chair of molecular biology.
In the early 1950s Giuseppe Bertani reported a phenomenon he described as ‘host-controlled variation’ in which phage (the viruses that infect bacteria) successfully growing on one host found it difficult to establish themselves on a different bacterium. In 1962, he proposed that bacteria possess highly specific enzymes capable of destroying invading phage by cutting up their DNA. The existence of such ‘restriction enzymes’ as they came to be called was later established by Hamilton Smith.
It turned out that, as Arber had proposed, the enzymes attack the invading DNA at a specific site, always cutting them at exactly the same place. It was this property that endowed restriction enzymes with such interest for if strands of DNA could be so manipulated to be cut at particular known points, it only needed the power to join such strands together in desired combinations for genetic engineering to be a reality. As restriction enzymes were found to leave DNA strands ‘sticky’ and ready to combine with certain other ‘sticky’ strands it was soon apparent to molecular biologists that genetic engineering was at last a practical proposition.
For his work on restriction enzymes Arber shared the 1978 Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine with Smith and Daniel Nathans.

Scientists. . 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Arber, Werner — born June 3, 1929, Gränichen, Switz. Swiss microbiologist. He has taught chiefly at the University of Basel. He shared a 1978 Nobel Prize with Daniel Nathans and Hamilton O. Smith for the discovery and use of restriction enzymes that break the… …   Universalium

  • Arber,Werner — Ar·ber (ärʹbər), Werner. Born 1929. Swiss microbiologist. He shared a 1978 Nobel Prize for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to molecular genetics. * * * …   Universalium

  • Arber, Werner — ► (n. 1929) Microbiólogo suizo. Fue premio Nobel de Medicina y Fisiología en 1978, compartido con D. Nathans y H. O. Smith, por su labor investigadora sobre la ciencia del mecanismo genético. * * * (n. 3 jun. 1929, Gränichen, Suiza). Microbiólogo …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Arber — Arber, Werner …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Werner Arber — (2008) Werner Arber (* 3. Juni 1929 in Gränichen) ist ein Schweizer Mikrobiologe und Genetiker. 1978 erhielt er den Nobelpreis für Physiologie oder Medizin. Inhaltsverzeichnis …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • ARBER (W.) — ARBER WERNER (1929 ) Né en Suisse, Werner Arber y a fait une carrière universitaire jusqu’en 1958. Chercheur à l’université de Los Angeles pendant deux ans, il devait rentrer dans son pays en 1960 pour y enseigner la génétique moléculaire et la… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Werner — Werner, Abraham Gottlob Werner, Alfred Werner, Pierre Werner, Theodor Werner, Zacharias * * * (as used in expressions) Alexanderson, Ernst F(rederik) W(erner) Arber, Werner Bischof, Werner …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Werner — /werr neuhr/; for 1 also Ger. /verdd neuhrdd/, n. 1. Alfred /al fred, frid/; Ger. /ahl frddayt/, 1866 1919, Swiss chemist: Nobel prize 1913. 2. a male given name. * * * (as used in expressions) Alexanderson Ernst Frederik Werner Arber Werner… …   Universalium

  • Werner Arber — en 2008. Werner Arber est un microbiologiste et un généticien suisse né le 3 juin 1929 à Gränichen en Argovie. Il a obtenu en 1978 le Prix Nobel de médecine avec Hamilton Smith et Daniel Nathans pour la découverte de l …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Werner Arber — en Roma en 2008. Nacimiento …   Wikipedia Español

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