Dewar , Sir James

Dewar , Sir James
(1842–1923) British chemist and physicist
Dewar, the son of a wine merchant, was born at Kincardine-on-Forth in Scotland. He was educated at Edinburgh University where he was a pupil of Lyon Playfair. In 1869 he was appointed lecturer in chemistry at the Royal Veterinary College, Edinburgh, and from 1873 also held the post of assistant chemist to the Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland. In 1875 Dewar became Jacksonian Professor of Experimental Philosophy at Cambridge University and from 1877 he was also Fullerian Professor of Chemistry at the Royal Institution, London. He did most of his work in London where the facilities for experimental work were much better.
Dewar conducted his most important work in the field of low temperatures and the liquefaction of gases. In 1878 he demonstrated Louis Cailletet's apparatus for the liquefaction of oxygen and by 1891 he was able to produce liquid oxygen in quantity. In about 1872 he devised a double-walled flask with a vacuum between its highly reflective walls, the Dewar flask, and used this to store liquefied oxygen at extremely low temperatures. This vessel (the thermos flask) has come into everyday use for keeping substances either hot or cold.
Hydrogen had so far resisted liquefaction and Dewar now turned his attention to this. Using the Joule–Thomson effect together with Karl von Linde's improvements of this, he produced a machine with which he obtained temperatures as low as 14 K and he produced liquid hydrogen in 1898 and solid hydrogen in 1899. Only helium now resisted liquefaction; this was achieved by Heike Kamerlingh-Onnes in 1908.
From about 1891 Dewar also studied explosives and with Frederick Abel he developed the smokeless powder, cordite. He was knighted in 1904.

Scientists. . 2011.

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  • Dewar,Sir James — Dew·ar (do͞oʹər, dyo͞oʹ ), Sir James. 1842 1923. Scottish born chemist and physicist who studied the liquefaction of gases and the properties of matter at very low temperatures and invented cordite (1889) with Sir Frederick Abel. * * * …   Universalium

  • Dewar, Sir James — born Sept. 20, 1842, Kincardine on Forth, Scot. died March 27, 1923, London, Eng. British chemist and physicist. In 1891 he built a machine for producing liquid oxygen in quantity. His Dewar flask for storing liquefied gases a double walled flask …   Universalium

  • Dewar, sir James — ► (1842 1923) Físico y químico británico. Fue el primero que obtuvo hidrógeno líquido en cantidades notables. * * * (20 sep. 1842, Kincardine on Forth, Escocia–27 mar. 1923, Londres, Inglaterra). Químico y físico británico. En 1891 construyó una… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Sir James Dewar — noun Scottish chemist and physicist noted for his work in cryogenics and his invention of the Dewar flask (1842 1923) • Syn: ↑Dewar • Instance Hypernyms: ↑chemist, ↑physicist …   Useful english dictionary

  • James Dewar — James Dewar. Sir James Dewar (né le 20 septembre 1842 à Kincardine, Fife mort le 27 mars 1923 à Londres) était un chimiste et physicien britannique. Né d un père propriétaire d un pub et d un commerce de …   Wikipédia en Français

  • James Dewar — James Dewar. Sir James Dewar (* 20. September 1842 in Kincardine, Schottland; † 27. März 1923 in London, England) war ein schottischer Physiker und Chemiker. Dewar studierte an der Universitä …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • James — /jaymz/, n. 1. Also called James the Great. one of the 12 apostles, the son of Zebedee and brother of the apostle John. Matt. 4:21. 2. the person identified in Gal. 1:19 as a brother of Jesus: probably the author of the Epistle of St. James. 3.… …   Universalium

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