Dausset , Jean
(1916–) French physician and immunologist
Dausset, the son of a doctor from Toulouse in southern France, gained his MD from the University of Paris in 1945 following wartime service in the blood transfusion unit. He was professor of hematology at the University of Paris from 1958 and professor of immunohematology from 1968. He was professor of experimental medicine at the Collège de France from 1977 to 1987.
Dausset's war experience stimulated his interest in transfusion reactions, and in 1951 he showed that the blood of certain universal donors (those of blood group O), which had been assumed safe to use in all transfusions, could nonetheless be dangerous. This was because of the presence of strong immune antibodies in their plasma, which develop following antidiphtheria and antitetanus injections. Donor blood is now systematically tested for such antibodies.
In the 1950s Dausset noticed a peculiar feature in the histories of patients who had received a number of blood transfusions: they developed a low white blood cell (leukocyte) count. He suspected that the blood transfused could well have contained antigens that stimulated the production of antibodies against the leukocytes. With insight and considerable courage Dausset went on to claim that the antigen on the blood cells, soon to be known as the HLA or human lymphocyte antigen, was the equivalent of the mouse H2 system, described by George Snell.
The significance of Dausset's work was enormous. It meant that tissues could be typed quickly and cheaply by simple blood agglutination tests as opposed to the complicated and lengthy procedure of seeing if skin grafts would take. Such work made the technically feasible operation of kidney transplantation a practical medical option, for at last the danger of rejection could be minimized by rapid, simple, and accurate tissue typing. Further confirmation of Dausset's work was obtained when the specific regions of the HLA gene complex were later identified by J. van Rood and R. Ceppellini as a single locus on human chromosome 6.
Dausset later shared the 1980 Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine with Snell and Baruj Benacerraf.

Scientists. . 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Dausset, Jean — ▪ French immunologist in full  Jean Baptiste Gabriel Joachim Dausset  born Oct. 19, 1916, Toulouse, France       French hematologist and immunologist whose studies of the genetic basis of the immunological reaction earned him a share (with George …   Universalium

  • Dausset, Jean — ► (n. 1916) Médico francés. Fue premio Nobel de Medicina y Fisiología en 1980, compartido con G. D. Snell y B. Benacerraf, por sus trabajos sobre inmunología y genética …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Dausset — Jean …   Scientists

  • Dausset — Dausset, Jean …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Jean Dausset — en 2005. Naissance 19 octobre 1916 Toulouse (France) Décès 6 juin 2009 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Jean Dausset — Nacimiento 19 de octubre de 1916 Toulouse, Francia Fallecimiento 6 d …   Wikipedia Español

  • Jean Baptiste Gabriel Joachim Dausset — (* 19. Oktober 1916 in Toulouse) ist ein französischer Mediziner und Hämatologe, der sich vorwiegend mit der Immunologie und Transplantationsmedizin beschäftigte. Er erhielt 1977 den Robert Koch Preis und 1980 den Nobelpreis für Medizin und… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Dausset — Jean Baptiste Gabriel Joachim Dausset (* 19. Oktober 1916 in Toulouse) ist ein französischer Mediziner und Hämatologe, der sich vorwiegend mit der Immunologie und Transplantationsmedizin beschäftigte. Er erhielt 1977 den Robert Koch Preis und… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Dausset — (Jean) (né en 1916) médecin et généticien français. Il découvrit l histocompatibilité. P. Nobel 1980 …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Jean Dausset — Jean Baptiste Gabriel Joachim Dausset (* 19. Oktober 1916 in Toulouse; † 6. Juni 2009 in Palma, Spanien) war ein französischer Mediziner und Hämatologe, der sich vorwiegend mit der Immunologie und Transplantationsmedizin beschäftigte. Er erhielt… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”