Chevreul , Michel Eugène


Chevreul , Michel Eugène
(1786–1889) French organic chemist
One of the longest-lived of all chemists, Chevreul, who was born at Angers in France, studied at the Collège de France (1803). He was an assistant to Antoine François de Fourcroy (1809), assistant at the Musée d'Histoire Naturelle (1810), then professor of physics at the Lycée Charlemagne (1813–30).
In 1810 Chevreul began a great program of research into fats, which was published in his book Recherches chimiques sur les corps gras d'origine animale (1823; Chemical Researches on Animal Fats). By acidification of soaps derived from animal fats and subsequent crystallization from alcohol he was able to identify for the first time various fatty acids: oleic acid, margaric acid (a mixture of stearic and palmitic acids), butyric acid, capric and caproic acids, and valeric acid. He recognized that fats are esters (called ‘ethers’ in the nomenclature of the day) of glycerol and fatty acids and that saponification produces salts of the fatty acids (soaps) and glycerol. In 1825 Chevreul and Joseph Gay-Lussac patented a process for making candles from crude stearic acid. Other fats investigated by Chevreul were spermaceti, lanolin, and cholesterol.
In 1824 Chevreul became director of the dyeworks for the Gobelins Tapestry, where he did important work on coloring matters, discovering hematoxylin in logwood, quercetin in yellow oak, and preparing the reduced colorless form of indigo. He also investigated the science and art of color with special application to the production of massed color by aggregations of small monochromatic dots, as in the threads of a tapestry.
Chevreul's later appointments were professor of chemistry at the Musée d'Histoire Naturelle (1830) and director there (1864). His other work included the discovery of creatine (1832) and studies on the history of chemistry.

Scientists. . 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Chevreul, Michel-Eugène — • Chemist, physicist, and philosopher, b. at Angers, France, 31 August, 1786; d. at Paris, 9 April, 1889 Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006 …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Chevreul, Michel-Eugène — ▪ French chemist Introduction born Aug. 31, 1786, Angers, France died April 9, 1889, Paris  French chemist who elucidated the chemical composition of animal fats (fat) and whose theories of colour influenced the techniques of French painting.… …   Universalium

  • CHEVREUL, MICHEL EUGÈNE —    a French chemist, born at Angers; an expert in the department of dyeing, and an authority on colours, as well as the chemistry of fats; was director in the dyeing department in the Gobelins manufactory; he lived to witness the centenary of his …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • Michel Eugène Chevreul — Born 31 August 1786 …   Wikipedia

  • Michel-Eugène Chevreul — Naissance 31 août 1786 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Michel Eugène Chevreul — Eugène Chevreul Michel Eugène Chevreul Eugène Chevreul Naissance 31 août 178 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Michel Eugène Chevreul — Nacimiento 31 de agosto de 1786 Angers …   Wikipedia Español

  • Michel-Eugene Chevreul —     Michel Eugène Chevreul     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Michel Eugène Chevreul     Chemist, physicist, and philosopher, b. at Angers, France, 31 August, 1786; d. at Paris, 9 April, 1889. His father was a physician, who had himself been an… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Michel Eugène Chevreul — Michel Eugène Chevreul. Michel Eugène Chevreul (* 31. August 1786 in Angers, Frankreich; † 9. April 1889 in Paris) war ein französischer Chemiker und der Begründer der modernen Theorie der Pigmente. 1824 Farbchemiker an der Königlichen… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Michel Eugène Chevreul — Químico francés, nacido en Angers en 1786, descubridor de la teoría de la saponificación. Sus investigaciones sobre la composición de las grasas las aplicó en la fabricación de bujías y jabones. Fue también el descubridor de los ácidos esteárico… …   Enciclopedia Universal


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