Chargaff , Erwin

Chargaff , Erwin
(1905–) Austrian–American biochemist
Chargaff, who was born at Czernowitz (now Chernovtsy in Ukraine), gained his PhD from the University of Vienna in 1928 and then spent two years at Yale University. He returned to Europe, working first in Berlin and then at the Pasteur Institute, Paris, before returning permanently to America in 1935.
Initially Chargaff's work covered a range of biochemical fields, including lipid metabolism and the process of blood coagulation. Later his attention became concentrated on the DNA molecule, following the announcement in 1944 by Oswald Avery that the factor causing the heritable transformation of bacteria is pure DNA. Chargaff reasoned that, if this were so, there must be many more different types of DNA molecules than people had believed. He examined DNA using the recently developed techniques of paper chromatography and ultraviolet spectroscopy and found the composition of DNA to be constant within a species but to differ widely between species. This led him to conclude that there must be as many different types of DNA as there are different species. However, some interesting and very important consistencies emerged. Firstly the number of purine bases (adenine and guanine) was always equal to the number of pyrimidine bases (cytosine and thymine), and secondly the number of adenine bases is equal to the number of thymine bases and the number of guanine bases equals the number of cytosine bases. This information, announced by Chargaff in 1950, was of crucial importance in constructing the Watson–Crick model of DNA.
Since 1935 Chargaff has worked at Columbia University, as professor of biochemistry from 1952 and as emeritus professor from 1974.

Scientists. . 2011.

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  • CHARGAFF, ERWIN — (1905–2002), U.S. biochemist. Chargaff was born in Czernowitz, then Austro Hungary, and gained a doctorate in chemistry from the University of Vienna (1928). He held postdoctoral research posts consecutively at the Universities of Yale, Vienna,… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Chargaff — Erwin Chargaff. Erwin Chargaff (* 11. August 1905 in Tschernowitz; † 20. Juni 2002 in New York City, USA) war ein österreichisch amerikanischer Biochemiker und Schriftsteller. Als Wissenschaftler lieferte Chargaff wichtige Beiträge zur… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Erwin Chargaff — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Erwin et Chargaff. Fichier:Erwin Chargaff.jpg Erwin Chargaff. Erwin Chargaff était un biochimiste autrichien, né à Czernowitz le 11 août 1905, décédé le 20 juin 2002, naturalisé américain en 1940. À l aide de… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Erwin Chargaff — (Czernowitz, August 11, 1905 ndash; New York City, USA, June 20, 2002) was an Austrian Jewish biochemist who emigrated to the United States during the Nazi era. Through careful experimentation, Chargaff discovered two rules that helped lead to… …   Wikipedia

  • Erwin Chargaff — (* 11. August 1905 in Czernowitz; † 20. Juni 2002 in New York) war ein österreichisch amerikanischer Biochemiker und Schriftsteller. Als Wissenschaftler lieferte Chargaff wichtige Beiträge zur Entschlüsselung der DNA Struktur. Nach seiner… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Erwin Chargaff — 200px Erwin Chargaff Nacimiento 11 de agosto de 1905 Czernowitz, Austria Fallecimiento 20 de junio de 2002 (96 años) Nueva York, EE. UU …   Wikipedia Español

  • Chargaff's rules — state that DNA from any cell of all organisms should have a 1:1 ratio (base Pair Rule)of pyrimidine and purine bases and, more specifically, that the amount of guanine is equal to cytosine and the amount of adenine is equal to thymine. This… …   Wikipedia

  • Chargaff — Chargaff: Family name Meaning Judaic Hebrew abbreviation (Hebrew: חרְגָ״ף ‎) of (Hebrew: חָתָן רַבִּי גּ״ףּ״ ‎) son in law of Rabbi G.P. , e.g. Gershon Pinchas Region of origin Jewish (Galicia, Poland, Bukovina) Language(s) of origin Hebrew …   Wikipedia

  • Erwin — ist ein männlicher Vorname, der allerdings auch als Familienname gebräuchlich ist. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Herkunft und Bedeutung des Namens 2 Namenstag 3 Varianten 4 Bekannte …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Chargaff —   [ ʃɑːɡaf], Erwin, österreichisch amerikanischer Biochemiker und Schriftsteller, * Tschernowzy 11. 8. 1905,✝New York 20. 6. 2002; lehrte 1935 74 an der Columbia University, New York. Seine Aussagen zur quantitativen Basenzusammensetzung der… …   Universal-Lexikon

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