Alfvén , Hannes Olof Gösta
(1908–1995) Swedish physicist
Alfvén, who was born in Norrkoeping, Sweden, was educated at the University of Uppsala where he received his PhD in 1934. He subsequently worked at the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, where he served as professor of the theory of electricity (1940–45), professor of electronics (1945–63), and professor of plasma physics (1963–73).
Alfvén is noted for his pioneering theoretical research in the field of magnetohydrodynamics – the study of conducting fluids and their interaction with magnetic fields. This work, for which he shared the 1970 Nobel Prize for physics with Louis Néel, was mainly concerned with plasmas; i.e. ionized gases containing positive and negative particles. He investigated the interactions of electrical and magnetic fields and showed theoretically that the magnetic field, under certain circumstances, can move with the plasma. In 1942 he postulated the existence of waves in plasmas; these Alfvén waves were later observed in both liquid metals and ionized plasmas.
Alfvén also applied his theories to the motion of particles in the Earth's magnetic field and to the properties of plasmas in stars. In 1942, and later in the 1950s, he developed a theory of the origin of the solar system. This he assumed to have formed from a magnetic plasma, which condensed into small particles that clustered together into larger bodies. His work is also applicable to the properties of plasmas in experimental nuclear fusion reactors. Alfvén's books include Cosmical Electrodynamics(1950), which collects his early work, On the Origin of the Solar System (1954), and On the Evolution of the Solar System (1976, with G. Arrhenius).
In his later years Alfvén argued against the current orthodoxy of the big-bang theory of the origin of the universe. Space, he argued, is full of immensely long plasma filaments. The electromagnetic forces produced have caused the plasma to condense into galaxies. As for the expansion of the universe, he attributed this to the energy released by the collision of matter and antimatter. Whereas Alfvén's critics charged him with vagueness, he responded by arguing that cosmologists derive their theories more from mathematical considerations than from laboratory experiments.

Scientists. . 2011.

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  • Alfvén, Hannes Olof Gösta — Alf·vén (äl vānʹ), Hannes Olof Gösta. 1908 1995. Swedish physicist. He won a 1970 Nobel Prize for his theories on plasma physics. * * * ▪ 1996       Swedish astrophysicist (b. May 30, 1908, Norrköping, Sweden d. April 2, 1995, Djursholm, Sweden) …   Universalium

  • Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén — Hannes Alfvén. Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén (* 30. Mai 1908 in Norrköping; † 2. April 1995 in Djursholm) war ein schwedischer Physiker. Er erhielt 1970 den Physik Nobelpreis für „seine grundlegenden Leistungen und Entdeckungen in der… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén — Hannes Alfvén Hannes Alfvén Naissance 30 mai 1908 Norrköping (Suède) Décès 2 avril 1995 Djursholm (Suède) Nationalité Suédoise Champs Astrophysique, Physique des plasmas …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén — (Norrköping, 1908 Estocolmo, 1995). Físico sueco, se licenció en Uppsala en 1926 y obtuvo el doctorado como especialista en física de plasmas por la Universidad de Upsala en 1935. Fue uno de los fundadores de la magnetohidrodinámica de la que… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Alfvén, Hannes — ▪ Swedish physicist in full  Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén   born May 30, 1908, Norrköping, Sweden died April 2, 1995, Djursholm       astrophysicist and winner, with Louis Néel of France, of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1970 for his essential… …   Universalium

  • Hannes Alfven — Hannes Alfvén. Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén (* 30. Mai 1908 in Norrköping; † 2. April 1995 in Djursholm) war ein schwedischer Physiker. Er erhielt 1970 den Physik Nobelpreis für „seine grundlegenden Leistungen und Entdeckungen in der… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Hannes Alfvén — Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén (Aussprache: [ˌhanːəs alˈveːn], * 30. Mai 1908 in Norrköping; † 2. April 1995 in Djursholm) war ein schwedischer Physiker. Er erhielt 1970 den Physik Nobelpreis für „seine grundlegenden Leistungen und Entdec …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Alfven-Geschwindigkeit — Als Alfvén Geschwindigkeit (benannt nach dem schwedischen Physiker und Nobelpreisträger Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén) bezeichnet man in der Plasmaphysik die Geschwindigkeit der gleichnamigen Alfvén Welle. Neben der langsamen und der schnellen… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Hannes Alfven — Hannes Alfvén Hannes Alfvén Naissance 30 mai 1908 Norrköping (Suède) Décès 2 avril 1995 Djursholm (Suède) Nationalité Suédoise Champs Astrophysique, Physique des plasmas …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Hannes Alfvén — Naissance 30 mai 1908 Norrköping (Suède) Décès 2 avril 1995 Djursholm (Suède) Nationalité Suédoise Champs Astrophysique, Physique des plasmas Institution Université d Uppsala Nobel Institute for Physics Kung …   Wikipédia en Français

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