Zeeman , Pieter

Zeeman , Pieter
(1865–1943) Dutch physicist
Born at Zonnemair in the Netherlands, Zeeman studied at Leiden University and received a doctorate in 1893. This was for his work on the Kerr effect, which concerns the effect of a magnetic field on light. In 1896 he discovered another magnetooptical effect, which now bears his name – he observed that the spectral lines of certain elements are split into three lines when the sample is in a strong magnetic field perpendicular to the light path; if the field is parallel to the light path the lines split into two. This work was done before the development of quantum mechanics, and the effect was explained at the time using classical theory by Hendrik Antoon Lorentz, who assumed that the light was emitted by oscillating electrons.
This effect (splitting into three or two lines) is called the normal Zeeman effect and it can be explained using Niels Bohr's theory of the atom. In general, most substances show an anomalous Zeeman effect, in which the splitting is into several closely spaced lines – a phenomenon that can be explained using quantum mechanics and the concept of electron spin.
Zeeman was a meticulous experimenter and he applied his precision in measurement to the determination of the speed of light in dense media, confirming Lorentz's prediction that this was related to wavelength. Also, in 1918, he established the equality of gravitational and inertial mass thus reconfirming Einstein's equivalence principle, which lies at the core of general relativity theory.
Zeeman and Lorentz shared the 1902 Nobel Prize for physics for their work on magnetooptical effects.

Scientists. . 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Zeeman, Pieter — ▪ Dutch physicist born May 25, 1865, Zonnemaire, Neth. died Oct. 9, 1943, Amsterdam       Dutch physicist who shared with Hendrik A. Lorentz (Lorentz, Hendrik Antoon) the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1902 for his discovery of the Zeeman effect (q.v …   Universalium

  • Zeeman,Pieter — Zee·man (zāʹmän ), Pieter. 1865 1943. Dutch physicist. He shared a 1902 Nobel Prize for researching the influence of magnetism on radiation. * * * …   Universalium

  • Zeeman, Pieter — ► (1865 1943) Físico holandés. Trabajó en óptica y astrofísica. Fue premio Nobel de Física en 1902, compartido con H. A. Lorentz, por el descubrimiento del efecto que lleva su nombre …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Zeeman — Pieter …   Scientists

  • Pieter Zeeman — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Pieter Zeeman. Pieter Zeeman (Zonnemaire, Holanda, 25 de mayo de 1865 Ámsterdam, 9 de octubre de 1943) fue un físico neerlandés galardonado con el Premio …   Wikipedia Español

  • Pieter Zeeman — Naissance 25 mai 1865 Zonnemaire (Pays Bas) Décès 9 octobre 1943 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Zeeman effect — n. [after ZEEMAN Pieter] Physics the effect produced upon the structure of the spectral lines of light emitted or absorbed by atoms subjected to a moderately strong magnetic field, resulting in the splitting of each spectrum line into two or… …   English World dictionary

  • Zeeman — Zeeman, Pieter Zeeman, efecto …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Zeeman — (Pieter) (1865 1943) physicien néerlandais. Il découvrit (1896) la décomposition des raies spectrales émises par les atomes sous l action d un champ magnétique (effet Zeeman). P. Nobel 1902 (avec H. A. Lorentz) …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Pieter Zeeman — Infobox Scientist name = Pieter Zeeman imagesize = 180px caption = Pieter Zeeman birth date = birth date|1865|5|25|mf=y birth place = Zonnemaire, Netherlands death date = death date and age|1943|10|9|1865|5|25 death place = Amsterdam, Netherlands …   Wikipedia

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