- Black , Joseph
- (1728–1799) British physician and chemistBlack, the son of a wine merchant, was born in Bordeaux, France, and studied languages and natural philosophy, and later, medicine and chemistry at Glasgow University (1746–50). He moved to Edinburgh in 1751, where he presented his thesis in 1754. Black published very little and the thesis, expanded and published asExperiments upon Magnesia Alba, Quicklime, and some other Alcaline Substances (1756), contained his most influential work. The paper in fact marked the beginning of modern chemistry. Black investigated quantitatively the cycle of reactions: limestone - quicklime -> slaked lime -> limestone, and showed that the gas evolved (‘fixed air’ or carbon dioxide) is distinct from and a constituent of atmospheric air, and is the cause of the effervescence of limestone with acids. He proved that mild alkalis will become more alkaline when they lose carbon dioxide and they are converted back to mild alkalis through reabsorption of the gas.Black's other great discovery was that of latent heat (the heat required to produce a change of state). The concept of latent heat came to him in 1757 and the experimental determination of the latent heat of fusion of ice was made in 1761. The next year he determined the latent heat of formation of steam. Black also distinguished the difference between heat and temperature and conceived the idea of specific heat.Black was professor of medicine and lecturer in chemistry at Glasgow (1756–66) and then professor of chemistry at Edinburgh for the rest of his life. Black's lectures, which he gave for over 30 years, were immensely popular and were published in 1803.
Scientists. Academic. 2011.
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Black,Joseph — Black, Joseph. 1728 1799. British chemist who rediscovered carbon dioxide (1756) and formulated the concepts of latent heat and specific heat. * * * … Universalium
Black, Joseph — ▪ British scientist Introduction born April 16, 1728, Bordeaux, France died Nov. 10, 1799, Edinburgh, Scot. British chemist and physicist best known for the rediscovery of “fixed air” ( carbon dioxide), the concept of latent heat, and the… … Universalium
BLACK, JOSEPH — a celebrated chemist, born at Bordeaux, of Scotch parents; the discoverer of what has been called latent heat, but what is really transformed energy; professor of Chemistry, first in Glasgow, then in Edinburgh, where his lectures were very… … The Nuttall Encyclopaedia
Joseph Black — Retrato Joseph Black. Nacimiento 19 de abril de 1728 Burdeos … Wikipedia Español
Joseph Black — (* 16. April 1728 in Bordeaux, Frankreich; † 6. Dezember 1799 in Edinburgh) war ein schottischer Physiker und Chemiker. Er ist der Entdecker des Kohlenstoffdioxids, des Elements Magnesium und der latenten Wärme … Deutsch Wikipedia
Black — (spr. bläck), Joseph, schott. Chemiker, geb. 1728 zu Bordeaux, seit 1756 Prof. in Glasgow, seit 1766 in Edinburgh, gest. das. 6. Dez. 1799; Entdecker der Kohlensäure und der latenten Wärme … Kleines Konversations-Lexikon
Black — (Bläck), Joseph, berühmter Chemiker, geb. 1728 zu Bordeaux, von schottischen Eltern, studierte zu Glasgow, wurde 1756 Professor der Medizin daselbst, später der Chemie in Edinburg, st. 1799. Bei seinen Versuchen mit Alkalien und Erden entdeckte… … Herders Conversations-Lexikon
Joseph Black — Infobox Scientist name = Joseph Black box width = image width = 180px caption = Mezzotint engraving after Sir Henry Raeburn birth date = April 16,1728 birth place = Bordeaux, France death date = December 6,1799 death place = Edinburgh residence … Wikipedia
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Joseph Pomeroy Widney — (December 26, 1841 mdash; July 4, 1938) was a polymathic pioneer American physician, medical topographer, scholar educator, clergyman, entrepreneur philanthropist, proto environmentalist, prohibitionist, philosopher of religion, controversial… … Wikipedia