Temin , Howard Martin
(1934–1994) American molecular biologist
Born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Temin studied biology at Swarthmore College and at the California Institute of Technology, where he obtained his PhD in animal virology in 1959. He worked at the University of Wisconsin from 1960 onward, serving as professor of oncology there from 1969 until his death from lung cancer.
There are two classes of viruses, those with DNA and those with RNA genes. The former replicate by transforming their DNA into new DNA and transmit information from DNA through RNA into protein. The latter class of viruses replicate RNA into RNA and transmit information directly into protein without the need for DNA. That is, all such reactions fitted into the general sequence DNA to RNA to protein, the so-called Central Dogma of molecular biology. In the early 1960s Temin discovered a curious feature of the RNA Rous chicken sarcoma virus (RSV): he found that it would not grow in the presence of the antibiotic actinomycin D, a drug known to inhibit DNA synthesis. Temin realized that this might mean the RSV replicated through a DNA intermediate, which he called the provirus. That is, Temin was proposing the sequence RNA (of the RSV) to DNA (provirus) to RNA (replicated RSV) which, while not actually excluded by the Central Dogma, was not implied by it either.
If such a reaction did take place then it would certainly require the presence of an enzyme capable of transcribing RNA into DNA. It was not until 1970 that Temin identified the enzyme (discovered independently by David Baltimore) known variously as reverse transcriptase or RNA-directed DNA polymerase. It was for this work that Temin shared the 1975 Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine with Baltimore and Renato Dulbecco.

Scientists. . 2011.

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  • TEMIN, HOWARD MARTIN — (1934–1994), U.S. Nobel laureate in medicine. Temin was born in Philadelphia and graduated in biology from Swarthmore College. He received his Ph.D. at the California Institute of Technology, studying Rous sarcoma virus. His mentors included… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Temin,Howard Martin — Tem·in (tĕmʹĭn), Howard Martin. 1934 1994. American oncologist. He shared a 1975 Nobel Prize for research on the interaction of tumor viruses and genetic material. * * * …   Universalium

  • Temin, Howard Martin — ▪ 1995       U.S. virologist (Dec. 10, 1934, Philadelphia, Pa. Feb. 9, 1994, Madison, Wis.), won the 1975 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine (with Renato Dulbecco and David Baltimore) for his role in discovering reverse transcriptase, an… …   Universalium

  • Howard Martin Temin — Howard M. Temin um 1975 Howard Martin Temin (* 10. Dezember 1934 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; † 9. Februar 1994 in Madison, Wisconsin) war ein US amerikanischer Biologe. Er wurde 1975 für seine Erkenntnisse im Bereich der Krebsforschun …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Howard Martin Temin — Howard Temin Howard Temin Howard Temin en 1975 Naissance 10 décembre 1934 Philadelphie (États Unis) …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Howard Martin Temin — (10 de diciembre, 1934 – 9 de febrero, 1994) fue un genetista estadounidense que codescubrió en 1970, junto a Renato Dulbecco y David Baltimore, la transcripción inversa.[1] [2] Licenciado en Biología en 1955 en el Swarthmore College en… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Howard Martin Temin — Infobox Scientist name = PAGENAME box width = image size = 150px caption = PAGENAME birth date = December 10, 1934 birth place = Philadelphia death date = February 9, 1994 death place = residence = citizenship = nationality = United States of… …   Wikipedia

  • Medizinnobelpreis 1975: David Baltimore — Renato Dulbecco — Howard Martin Temin —   Die drei amerikanischen Wissenschaftler erhielten den Nobelpreis für »ihre Entdeckungen auf dem Gebiet der Wechselwirkungen zwischen Tumorviren und dem genetischen Material der Zelle«.    Biografien   David Baltimore, * New York 7. 3. 1938; ab… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Temin — Howard Martin …   Scientists

  • Temin — Howard M. Temin um 1975 Howard Martin Temin (* 10. Dezember 1934 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; † 9. Februar 1994 in Madison, Wisconsin) war ein US amerikanischer Biologe. Er wurde 1975 für seine Erkenntnisse im Bereich der Krebsforschu …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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