Stoney , George Johnstone
(1826–1911) Irish physicist
Stoney, the son of an impoverished landowner, was born at Oakley Park (now in the Republic of Ireland) and educated at Trinity College, Dublin. After graduation in 1848 he worked as an assistant to the astronomer, Lord Rosse, at his observatory at Parsonstown until 1853 when he was appointed professor of natural philosophy at Queen's College, Galway. However, from 1857 onwards Stoney worked as an administrator, first as secretary of Queen's University, Belfast, and finally, from 1882 until 1893, as superintendent of civil service examinations.
Stoney is best known for his introduction of the term ‘electron’ into science. Although he is reported to have spoken of “an absolute unit of electricity” as early as 1874, his first public use of the term in print was in 1891 when he spoke of “these charges, which it will be convenient to call electrons” before the Royal Society of Dublin.
He did however make more substantial contributions to science than this and in early spectroscopy his work was of considerable significance. He began, in 1868, by making a crucial distinction between two types of molecular motion. There was the motion of a molecule in a gas relative to other molecules, which Stoney was able to exclude as the cause of spectra. There was also internal motion of a molecule, which according to Stoney produces the spectral lines. He went on to tackle, with little real success, the difficult problem of establishing an exact formula for the numerical relationship between the lines in the hydrogen spectrum. This problem was solved by the quantum theory of Niels Bohr.

Scientists. . 2011.

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  • Stoney, George Johnstone — ▪ Irish physicist born Feb. 15, 1826, Oakley Park, King s County, Ire. died July 5, 1911, London, Eng.       physicist who introduced the term electron for the fundamental unit of electricity.       In 1848 Stoney became assistant to the… …   Universalium

  • Stoney, George Johnstone — ► (1826 1911) Físico irlandés. Se le debe la introducción del concepto de electrón, determinando su carga por medios teóricos …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • George Johnstone Stoney — George Stoney George Johnstone Stoney (1826 1911) était un physicien irlandais, né à Oakley Park. Il apporta une contribution importante à l étude des spectres (lumière émise ou absorbée par diverses substances). Stoney fit ses études au Trinity… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • George Johnstone Stoney — (February 15, 1826 ndash; July 5, 1911) was an Anglo Irish physicist most famous for introducing the term electron as the fundamental unit quantity of electricity . He had introduced the concept, though not the word, as early as 1874 and 1881,… …   Wikipedia

  • George Johnstone Stoney — (* 15. Februar 1826 in Oakley Park, County Offaly, Irland; † 5. Juli 1911 in London) war ein irischer Physiker und gab der Elementarladung den Namen Elektron. Stoney war an der National University of Ireland, Galway tätig. 1874 schlug Stoney die… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • George Johnstone Stoney — (15 de febrero de 1826, Oakley Park 5 de julio de 1911, Londres) fue un físico y matemático irlandés que acuñó el término electrón en 1874. Trabajó para la Universidad Nacional de Irlanda. Estudioso de la estructura de la materia, se dedicó a… …   Wikipedia Español

  • George Johnstone Stoney — (1826 1911) fue un físico irlandés que acuñó el término electrón …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Stoney — Stoney, George Johnstone …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • George J. Stoney — George Stoney George Johnstone Stoney (1826 1911) était un physicien irlandais, né à Oakley Park. Il apporta une contribution importante à l étude des spectres (lumière émise ou absorbée par diverses substances). Stoney fit ses études au Trinity… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • George FitzGerald — George Francis FitzGerald (* 3. August 1851 in Dublin, Irland; † 22. Februar 1901 ebenda) war ein irischer Physiker. Er war der Sohn von William FitzGerald, einem Professor für Moralphilosophie und späteren anglikanischen Bischof, und der Neffe… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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