Shull , Clifford Glenwood
(1915–) American physicist
Shull, who was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, was educated at the Carnegie Institute of Technology and New York University, where he obtained his PhD in 1941. He began as a research physicist working first for the Texas Company, from 1941 to 1946, and then with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory from 1946 until 1955, when he entered academic life as professor of physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He remained at the institute until his retirement in 1986.
Shull's main research interest has been in the diffraction of slow neutrons by crystals. Just as x-rays can be diffracted by a crystal lattice, neutron beams of suitable energy also show diffraction effects. In the case of x-rays, diffraction is mainly by the electrons in the atom, whereas in neutron diffraction the nuclei scatter the neutrons. From about 1946 onward Shull applied neutron diffraction to determining crystal structure, showing that the method could indicate the position of light atoms such as hydrogen (which are not detected by x-ray methods).
Shull also showed that an additional effect occurred in neutron diffraction – magnetic scattering by interaction of the neutron's magnetic moment with that of the atom. He demonstrated antiferromagnetism in manganese(II) oxide using this technique in 1949. He has subsequently done considerable work in ‘magnetic diffraction’ of neutrons and in other aspects of neutron interaction with matter. For his work on neutron diffraction Shull shared the 1994 Nobel Prize for physics with Bertram Brockhouse.

Scientists. . 2011.

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  • Shull, Clifford Glenwood — ▪ 2002       American physicist (b. Sept. 23, 1915, Pittsburgh, Pa. d. March 31, 2001, Medford, Mass.), shared the 1994 Nobel Prize for Physics for his development of neutron scattering techniques in particular, neutron diffraction, a process… …   Universalium

  • Clifford Glenwood Shull — (* 23. September 1915 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; † 31. März 2001 in Medford, Massachusetts) war ein US amerikanischer Physiker. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Leben 2 Werk 3 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Clifford Glenwood Shull — Clifford Shull Clifford Glenwood Shull (23 septembre 1915 à Pittsburgh, – 31 mars 2001) était un physicien américain qui reçut le prix Nobel en 1994. C est au lycée à la Schenley High School que s éveilla son intérêt pour la physique, grâce à son …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Clifford Glenwood Shull — (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 23 de septiembre de 1915 – 31 de marzo de 2001) fue un físico estadounidense, ganador del Premio Nobel de Física. El compartió en 1994 el Premio Nobel con Bertram Brockhouse por el desarrollo de la técnica de neutron… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Shull, Clifford G. — ▪ American physicist in full  Clifford Glenwood Shull   born September 23, 1915, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S. died March 31, 2001, Medford, Massachusetts       American physicist who was corecipient of the 1994 Nobel Prize for Physics for his… …   Universalium

  • Physiknobelpreis 1994: Bertram Neville Brockhouse — Clifford Glenwood Shull —   Der Kanadier und der Amerikaner erhielten den Nobelpreis für ihre Entwicklung von Techniken zur Streuung der ungeladenen Kernteilchen (Neutronen).    Biografien   Bertram Neville Brockhouse, * Lethbridge …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Shull — Clifford Glenwood …   Scientists

  • Clifford Shull — Born September 23, 1915 Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Died March 31, 2001 (aged 85) Medford, Massachusetts …   Wikipedia

  • Clifford G. Shull — Clifford Shull Clifford Glenwood Shull (23 septembre 1915 à Pittsburgh, – 31 mars 2001) était un physicien américain qui reçut le prix Nobel en 1994. C est au lycée à la Schenley High School que s éveilla son intérêt pour la physique, grâce à son …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Clifford Shull — Clifford Glenwood Shull (* 23. September 1915 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; † 31. März 2001 in Medford, Massachusetts) war ein US amerikanischer Physiker. Er wurde 1994 mit dem Nobelpreis ausgezeichnet. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Leben 2 Werk …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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