Shockley , William Bradford
(1910–1989) British–American physicist
Shockley, born the son of a mining engineer in London, was educated at the California Institute of Technology and at Harvard, where he obtained his PhD in 1936. He started work at the Bell Telephone Laboratories in 1936. In 1963 he took up an appointment as professor of engineering at Stanford University.
Shockley is noted for his early work in the development of the transistor – an invention that has had a profound effect on modern society. He collaborated with John Bardeen and Walter Brattainin their work on the point-contact transistor (1947). The following year Shockley developed the junction transistor.
In semiconductors such as germanium and silicon the electrical conductivity is strongly affected by impurities. The germanium and silicon atoms have four outermost electrons and an impurity such as arsenic, with five outer electrons, contributes extra electrons to the solid. In such materials the current is carried by negative electrons and the conductivity is said to be n-type. Alternatively, impurities such as boron, with three outer electrons, have a different effect in that they introduce ‘holes’ – i.e., ‘missing’ electrons. An electron on an adjacent atom can move to ‘fill’ the hole, leaving another hole. By this mechanism electrical conduction is by movement of positive holes through the solid – the conductivity is said to be p-type.
Shockley experimented with junctions of p- and n-type material, showing how they act as rectifiers. He formed the first junction transistor of a thin layer of p-type material sandwiched between two n-type regions. This npn junction transistor could be used to amplify current. Shockley shared the 1970 Nobel Prize for physics with Bardeen and Brattain.

Scientists. . 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Shockley,William Bradford — Shock·ley (shŏkʹlē), William Bradford. 1910 1989. British born American physicist. He shared a 1956 Nobel Prize for the development of the electronic transistor. * * * …   Universalium

  • William Bradford Shockley — William B. Shockley William Bradford Shockley (* 13. Februar 1910 in London; † 12. August 1989 in Stanford) war ein US amerikanischer Physiker und Nobelpreisträger. Inhaltsverzeichnis …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • William Bradford Shockley — William Shockley William Shockley William Shockley Naissance 13 février 1910 Londres (Angleterre) Décès 12  …   Wikipédia en Français

  • William Bradford Shockley — (13 de febrero de 1910 12 de agosto de 1989). Fue un físico estadounidense, galardonado con el Premio Nobel de Física en 1956. Inventó el transistor de unión el 5 de julio de 1951. A finales de los años 1960, Sockley realizó una controvertidas… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • William Bradford Shockley — Retrato de 1956. William Bradford Shockley (13 de febrero de 1910 12 de agosto de 1989) fue un físico estadounidense. En conjunto con John Bardeen y Walter Houser Brattain, obtuvo el premio Nobel de Física en 1956 por sus investigaciones sobre… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Shockley, William B. — ▪ American physicist in full  William Bradford Shockley   born Feb. 13, 1910, London, Eng. died Aug. 12, 1989, Palo Alto, Calif., U.S.  American engineer and teacher, cowinner (with John Bardeen (Bardeen, John) and Walter H. Brattain (Brattain,… …   Universalium

  • William Bradford Shockley — noun United States physicist (born in England) who contributed to the development of the electronic transistor (1910 1989) • Syn: ↑Shockley, ↑William Shockley • Instance Hypernyms: ↑physicist …   Useful english dictionary

  • Shockley — William Bradford …   Scientists

  • Shockley — (William Bradford) (1910 1989) physicien américain. Sa participation à l invention du transistor lui valut le P. Nobel 1956 …   Encyclopédie Universelle

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