Rose , William Cumming

Rose , William Cumming
(1887–1984) American biochemist
Born in Greenville, South Carolina, Rose was educated at Davidson College, North Carolina, and at Yale, where he obtained his PhD in 1911. He taught at the University of Texas from 1913 to 1922, when he moved to the University of Illinois as professor of physiological chemistry; from 1936 until his retirement in 1955 he was professor of biochemistry there.
In the late 1930s Rose was responsible for a beautifully precise set of experiments that introduced the idea of an essential amino acid into nutrition, demonstrating its effect on both human and rodent diet. It had been known for a long time to nutritionists that rats fed on a diet in which the only protein was zein (found in corn), despite enrichment with vitamins, would inevitably die. Rose worked with the constituent amino acids rather than proteins; he still found, however, that whatever combination of amino acids he tried the rats died. However, if the milk protein, casein, was added to their diet the ailing rats recovered.
It was obvious from this that casein must contain an amino acid, not present in zein and then unknown, that was essential for life. Rose began a long series of experiments extracting and testing various fragments of casein until at last he found, in 1936, threonine, the essential amino acid that provided a satisfactory rodent diet when added to the other amino acids. Rose argued that if there was one essential amino acid there could well be others. Over several years he therefore continued to manipulate the rodent diet and finally established the primary importance of ten amino acids: lysine, tryptophan, histidine, phenylalanine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine, valine, and arginine, in addition to the newly discovered threonine. With these in adequate quantities the rats were capable of synthesizing any of the other amino acids if and when they were needed.
In 1942 Rose began a ten-year research project on human diet. By persuading students to restrict their diet in various ways Rose eventually established that there are eight essential amino acids for humans: unlike rats we can survive without arginine and histidine. Since then, however, it has been suggested that these two amino acids are probably required to sustain growth in infants.

Scientists. . 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • William Cumming Rose — Infobox Scientist name = William Cumming Rose box width = image width =150px caption = William Cumming Rose birth date = April 4, 1887 birth place = death date = September 25, 1985 death place = residence = citizenship = nationality = United… …   Wikipedia

  • William Rose — may refer to:*William Cumming Rose (1887 ndash;1985), American nutritionist *William Rose (screenwriter) (1918 ndash;1987), American screenwriter *Axl Rose, born William Rose, Guns N Roses vocalist *William I. Rose, American mineralogist *Sir… …   Wikipedia

  • Rose — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Sur les autres projets Wikimedia : « rose », sur le Wiktionnaire (dictionnaire universel) « Rose », sur le Wiktionnaire… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • William Rose —  Cette page d’homonymie répertorie différentes personnes partageant un même nom. William Rose (1861 1937), un joueur de football international anglais ; William Cumming Rose nutritionniste américain(1887 1985) William Rose (scénariste)… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • William Miller (engraver) — Infobox Person name = William Miller caption = William Miller, photograph, circa 1862 birth date = birth date|1796|05|28 birth place = Edinburgh, Scotland death date = January 20, 1882 death place = death cause = (burial location:… …   Wikipedia

  • Clan Cumming — or Comyn Crest badge …   Wikipedia

  • Clan Rose — A crest badge suitable for a member of Clan Rose. Clan Rose is a Highland Scottish clan. Their chief s motto is Constant and True and their chief s family castle is Kilravock Castle, built in 1460. The current chief of name and arms is Anna… …   Wikipedia

  • Essential amino acid — An essential amino acid or indispensable amino acid is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized de novo by the organism (usually referring to humans), and therefore must be supplied in the diet. Contents 1 Essentiality vs. conditional… …   Wikipedia

  • Liste Des Généraux De L'Union — Liste des officiers généraux de l’armée de l Union, durant la guerre de Sécession : Liens internes Liste des généraux de la Confédération Grades Général = général d armée, Lieutenant général = général de corps d armée, Major général =… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Liste des generaux de l'Union — Liste des généraux de l Union Liste des officiers généraux de l’armée de l Union, durant la guerre de Sécession : Liens internes Liste des généraux de la Confédération Grades Général = général d armée, Lieutenant général = général de corps d …   Wikipédia en Français

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.