Purkinje , Johannes Evangelista
(1787–1869) Czech physiologist
Born at Libochovice (now in the Czech Republic), Purkinje began studying to be a priest but changed to medicine and graduated MD from Charles University, Prague, in 1819. He became professor of physiology and pathology at the University of Breslau in 1823 but returned to Charles University in 1850 to take the chair of physiology, which he held until his death. Purkinje's most celebrated research was concerned with the eye, although he also did valuable work on the brain, muscles, sweat glands, digestion, animal and plant cells, and embryology. He explored various aspects of vision, drawing attention, for example, to the fact that in subdued light blue objects appear brighter to the eye than red objects – the Purkinje effect. He located Purkinje cells in the middle layer of the brain's cerebellar cortex and was the first to apply the term ‘protoplasm’ to the living embryonic material contained in the egg. He also discovered, in the inner walls of the ventricles of the heart, the Purkinje fibers, which transmit the pacemaker stimulus. His comparative studies of cellular structure in plants and animals were continued by Matthias Schlieden and Theodor Schwann and led to subsequent increased knowledge of the factors involved in inheritance. Purkinje was among the first to use a microtome for preparing thin slices of tissue for microscopic examination, and may have been the first to teach microscopy and microscopical technique as part of his college courses. He also realized that fingerprints can be used as a method of identification.

Scientists. . 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Purkinje, Johannes Evangelista — Médico checo nacido en 1787. Fue uno de los primeros investigadores en fisiología e histología y a él se debe la teoría de la visión de los colores, los fundamentos de la teoría celular y la identificación de las células del córtex cerebeloso que …   Diccionario médico

  • Johannes Evangelista Purkinje — Purkinje, Johannes Evangelista Médico checo nacido en 1787. Fue uno de los primeros investigadores en fisiología e histología y a él se debe la teoría de la visión de los colores, los fundamentos de la teoría celular y la identificación de las… …   Diccionario médico

  • Johannes Evangelista Purkinje — noun Bohemian physiologist remembered for his discovery of Purkinje cells and the Purkinje network (1787 1869) • Syn: ↑Purkinje, ↑Jan Evangelista Purkinje • Instance Hypernyms: ↑physiologist …   Useful english dictionary

  • Purkinje — Purkinje, Johannes Evangelista, Mediziner, geb. 17. Dez. 1787 zu Libochowitz bei Leitmeritz in Böhmen, gest. 28. Juli 1869 in Prag, studierte in Prag zuerst Philosophie, dann Medizin, ward 1819 Assistent der Anatomie und Physiologie daselbst,… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Purkinje — Purkinje, Johannes Evangelista, berühmter Physiolog, geb. 1787 zu Libochowitz in Böhm en, 1823 Professor der Physiologie u. Pathologie in Breslau. seit 1849 Professor der Physiologie in Prag. »Beobachtungen u. Versuche zur Physiologie der Sinne«… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Purkinje — Jan Evangelista Purkyně. Jan Evangelista Purkyně (* 17. Dezember 1787 in Libochovice bei Leitmeritz; † 28. Juli 1869 in Prag) war ein böhmischer Ordenslehrer, Physiologe und Pathologe, Politiker und – als Schüler – Sänger. Unter der… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Purkinje — noun Bohemian physiologist remembered for his discovery of Purkinje cells and the Purkinje network (1787 1869) • Syn: ↑Jan Evangelista Purkinje, ↑Johannes Evangelista Purkinje • Instance Hypernyms: ↑physiologist …   Useful english dictionary

  • Purkinje's colour —    Also known as Purkinje phenomenon, Purkinje hallucination, flicker induced hallucination, and photically induced hallucination. The eponyms Purkinje s colour, Purkinje hallucination, and Purkinje phenomenon refer to the Bohemian physiologist… …   Dictionary of Hallucinations

  • Purkinje figure —    Also known as Purkyne figure. Both eponyms refer to the Bohemian physiologist Johannes Evangelista Purkyne (1787 1869). They are used to denote an entoptic phenomenon consisting of a black, tree like structure that can be made visible under… …   Dictionary of Hallucinations

  • Purkinje — Pụrkinje,   1) Johannes Evangelista Ritter von, tschechisch Jan Pụrkyně [ kinjɛ], tschechischer Physiologe, * Libochowitz (bei Leitmeritz) 18. 12. 1787, ✝ Prag 28. 7. 1869, Vater von 2); wurde 1823 Professor in Breslau, 1850 in Prag; förderte… …   Universal-Lexikon

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