Poisson , Siméon-Denis
(1781–1840) French mathematician and mathematical physicist
Poisson, born the son of a local government administrator at Pithiviers in France, studied at the Ecole Polytechnique, where his teachers included Pierre Simon Laplace and Joseph Lagrange. He himself later held various teaching posts at the Ecole. His important mathematical work was largely in mathematical physics and he also did a considerable amount of experimental work on heat and sound. In thermodynamics he played an important role in making the whole subject amenable to mathematical treatment by showing how to quantify heat precisely. He is also one of the principal founders of the mathematical theory of elasticity.
Poisson is possibly best known for his work on probability, and he was something of a pioneer in applying the techniques of mathematical probability to the social sciences, something that was extremely controversial at the time. The term ‘law of large numbers’ was introduced by Poisson in his seminal work,Recherches sur la probabilité des jugements (1837; Researches on the Probability of Opinions), in which he put forward his discovery of the Poisson distribution. This is the distribution that is a special case of the binomial distribution obtained when the probability of success in a given trial is some constant divided by the number of trials.
Although chiefly an applied mathematician Poisson also made some significant contributions to pure mathematics, in particular to complex analysis. It was Poisson who first thought of integrating complex functions along a path in the complex plane.

Scientists. . 2011.

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  • Poisson, Siméon-Denis — ▪ French mathematician born June 21, 1781, Pithiviers, France died April 25, 1840, Sceaux  French mathematician known for his work on definite integrals, electromagnetic theory, and probability (probability theory).       Poisson s family had… …   Universalium

  • Poisson, Simeon Denis — ► (1781 1840) Físico y matemático francés. Fue el creador de la física matemática. Desarrolló la teoría del potencial gravitatorio, aplicable también al electrostático …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • POISSON, SIMEON-DENIS —    a celebrated French mathematician, born at Pithiviers; was for his eminence in mathematical ability and physical research raised to the peerage; wrote no fewer than 300 memoirs (1781 1840) …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • Simeon Denis Poisson — Siméon Denis Poisson Pour les articles homonymes, voir Poisson (homonymie). Siméon Denis Poisson …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Siméon-Denis Poisson — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Poisson (homonymie). Siméon Denis Poisson …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Siméon Denis Poisson — Siméon Poisson Siméon Denis Poisson (1781 1840) Nacimiento 21 de junio de 1781 Pithiviers, Loiret …   Wikipedia Español

  • Simeon Denis Poisson — Siméon Denis Poisson Siméon Denis Poisson (* 21. Juni 1781 in Pithiviers (Département Loiret); † 25. April 1840 in Paris) war ein französischer Physiker und Mathematiker. Poisson begann 1798 Mathematik an der École polytechnique zu studieren, wo… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Siméon Denis Poisson — (* 21. Juni 1781 in Pithiviers (Département Loiret); † 25. April 1840 in Paris) war ein französischer Physiker und Mathematiker. Leben und Werk …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Siméon Denis Poisson — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Poisson (homonymie). Siméon Denis Poisson Siméon Denis Poisson Naissance …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Siméon Denis Poisson — Infobox Scientist box width = 300px name = Siméon Poisson image size = 200px caption = Siméon Denis Poisson (1781 1840) birth date = 21 June 1781 birth place = Pithiviers, France death date = 25 April 1840 death place = Sceaux, France residence …   Wikipedia

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