Northrop , John Howard
(1891–1987) American chemist
The son of biologists, Northrop was born in Yonkers, New York, and educated at Columbia, obtaining his PhD there in 1915. In 1917 he joined the Rockefeller Institute of Medical Research, only leaving on his retirement in 1961.
In the early 1930s Northrop confirmed some earlier results of James Sumner. Between 1930 and 1935 he and his coworkers succeeded in isolating a number of enzymes, including pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, ribonuclease, and deoxyribonuclease, crystallizing them and exhibiting unequivocally their protein nature. This was sufficient finally to convince chemists that Sumner was correct, and Richard Willstätter had been wrong in his assertion that enzymes are nonprotein.
Using Northrop's techniques, Wendell Stanley was able in 1936 to isolate and crystallize the tobacco mosaic virus, and showed it to be composed of nucleoprotein. Subsequently (1938) Northrop isolated a bacteriophage (bacterial virus) and demonstrated that this also consisted of nucleoprotein. For such work on the isolation and crystallization of proteins and viruses, Northrop, Sumner, and Stanley shared the 1946 Nobel Prize for chemistry.

Scientists. . 2011.

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  • Northrop,John Howard — Nor·throp (nôrʹthrəp), John Howard. 1891 1987. American biochemist. He shared a 1946 Nobel Prize for discovering methods of producing pure enzymes and virus proteins. * * * …   Universalium

  • Northrop, John Howard — born July 5, 1891, Yonkers, N.Y., U.S. died May 27, 1987, Wickenberg, Ariz. U.S. biochemist. He worked most of his career on the staff of New York City s Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (1916–61). His early research on fermentation… …   Universalium

  • Northrop, John Howard — (5 jul. 1891, Yonkers, N.Y., EE.UU.–27 may. 1987, Wickenberg, Ariz.). Bioquímico estadounidense. Trabajó la mayor parte de su carrera como miembro del personal del Instituto Rockefeller de la ciudad de Nueva York para la investigación médica… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • John Howard Northrop — Born July 5, 1891(1891 07 05) Yonkers, New York …   Wikipedia

  • John Howard Northrop — (* 5. Juli 1891 in Yonkers, New York; † 27. Mai 1987 in Wickenburg, Arizona) war ein US amerikanischer Chemiker. Northrop erhielt 1946 zusammen mit Wendell Meredith Stanley die Hälfte des Nobelpreis für Chemie für ihre Darstellung von Enzymen und …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • John Howard — No debe confundirse con John Howard Northrop. John Howard 25º primer ministro de Australia …   Wikipedia Español

  • John Howard Northrop — (5 juillet 1891 à Yonkers, New York 27 mai 1987) est un biochimiste américain, co lauréat avec Wendell Meredith Stanley de la moitié du prix Nobel de chimie de 1946[1]. Biographie Northrop est né à Yonkers dans l État de New York et a… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • John Howard Northrop — noun United States biochemist (1891 1987) • Syn: ↑Northrop • Instance Hypernyms: ↑biochemist …   Useful english dictionary

  • Chemienobelpreis 1946: James Batcheller Sumner — John Howard Northrop — Wendell Meredith Stanley —   Der Nobelpreis für Chemie 1946 ging an drei Amerikaner; Sumner erhielt ihn für die Entdeckung der Kristallisierbarkeit von Enzymen, Northrop und Stanley für ihre Darstellung von Enzymen und Virusproteinen in reiner Form.    Biografien   James… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Northrop — John Howard …   Scientists

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