Nobel , Alfred Bernhard
(1833–1896) Swedish chemist, engineer, and inventor
Nobel left Stockholm, where he was born, in 1842 to join his father, an engineer, who had moved to St. Petersburg. He was taught chemistry by his tutors and spoke fluently in English, French, German, Swedish, and Russian. In 1850 he went to Paris to study chemistry and then went on to America for four years, before returning to work in his father's factory in St. Petersburg.
In 1859 Nobel moved back to Sweden and set up a factory there (1864) to make nitroglycerin, a liquid explosive. After an explosion at the factory in 1864 in which his brother, Emil, and four others were killed, the Swedish government would not allow the factory to be rebuilt. Nobel then started to experiment to find a more stable explosive. Discovering that nitroglycerin was easily absorbed by a dry organic packing material, he invented dynamite and the detonating cap. These were patented in 1867 (UK) and 1868 (Unites States). From such work and from oil fields in Russia that he owned, Nobel amassed a vast fortune. He traveled widely and was a committed pacifist. He left the bulk of his money in trust for international awards – the Nobel Prizes for peace, literature, physics, chemistry, and medicine. The Nobel Prize for economics was introduced in his honor in 1969 and financed by the Swedish National Bank.

Scientists. . 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Nobel, Alfred Bernhard — ▪ Swedish inventor born Oct. 21, 1833, Stockholm, Sweden died Dec. 10, 1896, San Remo, Italy       Swedish chemist, engineer, and industrialist, who invented dynamite and other, more powerful explosives and who also founded the Nobel Prizes… …   Universalium

  • Nobel,Alfred Bernhard — No·bel (nō bĕlʹ), Alfred Bernhard. 1833 1896. Swedish chemist and engineer who invented dynamite (1866) and bequeathed his fortune to institute the Nobel Prizes. * * * …   Universalium

  • Nobel, Alfred (Bernhard) — born Oct. 21, 1833, Stockholm, Swed. died Dec. 10, 1896, San Remo, Italy Swedish chemist, engineer, and industrialist. His attempts to find a safe way to handle nitroglycerin resulted in the invention of dynamite and the blasting cap. He built a… …   Universalium

  • Nobel, Alfred (Bernhard) — (21 oct. 1833, Estocolmo, Suecia–10 dic. 1896, San Remo, Italia). Químico, ingeniero e industrial sueco. Sus intentos para encontrar una forma segura para manejar la nitroglicerina resultaron en la invención de la dinamita y la cápsula detonante …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Alfred Bernhard Nobel — noun Swedish chemist remembered for his invention of dynamite and for the bequest that created the Nobel prizes (1833 1896) • Syn: ↑Nobel, ↑Alfred Nobel • Instance Hypernyms: ↑chemist, ↑philanthropist, ↑altruist …   Useful english dictionary

  • Alfred Bernhard Nobel — n. Alfred Nobel (1833 1896), Swedish scientist and industrialist who established the Nobel Prize, inventor of dynamite …   English contemporary dictionary

  • Alfred Nobel — Born 21 October 1833(1833 10 21) Stockholm, Sweden Died 10 December 1896( …   Wikipedia

  • Alfred Nobel — Totenmaske von Alfred …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Bernhard — Bernhard, Thomas * * * (as used in expressions) Bülow, Bernhard (Heinrich Martin Karl), príncipe von Feininger, Andreas (Bernhard Lyonel) Moltke, Helmuth (Karl Bernhard), conde von Nobel, Alfred (Bernhard) Riemann, (Georg Friedrich) Bernhard …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Nobel prize — any of various awards made annually, beginning in 1901, from funds originally established by Alfred B. Nobel for outstanding achievement in physics, chemistry, medicine or physiology, literature, and the promotion of peace; an annual award in… …   Universalium

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