Murray , Joseph Edward
(1919–) American surgeon
Murray was born in Milford, Massachusetts. Educated at Holy Cross College and at Harvard University, he embarked on a career in medicine, specializing in plastic surgery. He worked at the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital, Boston, becoming chief plastic surgeon (1964–86), held a similar position at the Children's Hospital Medical Center, Boston (1972–85), and served as professor of surgery at Harvard Medical School from 1970 to 1986.
Murray was a pioneer of kidney transplantation. In December 1954 he performed the first operation to implant a donor kidney into the pelvis of the recipient and attach it via the ureter to the bladder. Earlier attempts had placed the transplanted organ outside the body cavity, at sites such as the groin and armpit. The patient in Murray's operation was Richard Herrick, who received a kidney from his identical twin, Ronald.
The use of an organ from an identical sibling overcame the great obstacle of transplant surgery, namely rejection of the transplanted organ by the recipient's immune system. By receiving an organ of virtually identical tissue type, this first patient survived for eight years. For patients receiving organs from less closely related donors, the outlook was much worse.
Murray endeavored to improve the survival of the transplanted organ by suppressing the recipient's immune responses immediately prior to the operation. He conducted trials of the drug azathioprine, which killed cells of the immune system and so reduced the ability of the patient's own defense mechanism to reject the ‘foreign’ tissue of a transplanted organ. Azathioprine had been developed by the British researcher, Roy Calne (1930––sp;–sp;), working in collaboration with Murray at Boston. The drug proved to be an effective and much less hazardous alternative to Murray's initial method of using a massive dose of x-rays to suppress the recipient's immune system. (Azathioprine has now been superseded by cyclosporine, also developed by Calne.)
For his work in developing fundamental techniques in transplantation surgery, Murray was awarded the 1990 Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine, jointly with E. Donnall Thomas.

Scientists. . 2011.

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  • Joseph Edward Murray — (* 1. April 1919 in Milford, Massachusetts) ist ein amerikanischer Chirurg und Pionier der Nierentransplantation. 1990 erhielt er zusammen mit E. Donnall Thomas den Nobelpreis für Physiologie oder Medizin „für ihre Einführung der Methode der… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Murray, Joseph E. — ▪ American physiologist in full  Joseph Edward Murray   born April 1, 1919, Milford, Mass., U.S.       American surgeon who in 1990 was cowinner (with E. Donnall Thomas (Thomas, E. Donnall)) of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his… …   Universalium

  • Joseph Edward Murray — Joseph E. Murray nació el 1 de abril de 1919 en Milford Massachusetts, Estados Unidos. Finalizada su carrera de Medicina se doctora en Medicina y Cirugía en la Universidad de Massachusetts. Desde un principio se decanta por la investigación en el …   Wikipedia Español

  • Medizinnobelpreis 1990: Joseph Edward Murray — Edward Donnall Thomas —   Die amerikanischen Mediziner entwickelten die Organ und Zelltransplantation.    Biografien   Joseph Edward Murray, * Milford (USA) 1. 4. 1919; 1946 Promotion in Medizin an der Harvard Medical School in Cambridge (Massachusetts), 1964 86… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Murray — Joseph Edward …   Scientists

  • Joseph E. Murray — Joseph Edward Murray (* 1. April 1919 in Milford, Massachusetts) ist ein amerikanischer Chirurg. Am 23. Dezember 1954 gelang ihm die erste erfolgreiche Nierentransplantation zwischen zwei eineiigen Zwillingen. 1962 gelang ihm die Transplantation… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Murray (Name) — Murray ist ein schottischer Familienname, der auch als Vorname verwendet wird. Herkunft und Bedeutung Der Name ist von der Landschaft Moray abgeleitet. Bekannte Namensträger Inhaltsverzeichnis A B C D E F G H I J K L M …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Joseph Murray — ist der Name folgender Personen: Joseph Murray (Boxer) (* 1987), englischer Boxer Joseph Edward Murray (* 1919), US amerikanischer Arzt, Medizin Nobelpreisträger Joseph Thomas Murray (1834–1907), US amerikanischer Fabrikant und Erfinder …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Murray — I Murray   [ mʌrɪ] der, Hauptfluss Australiens, im Südosten des Kontinents; entspringt in den Snowy Mountains, mündet in den Strandsee Lake Alexandrina und über ihn in die Encounter Bay des Indischen Ozeans, 2 530 km lang; mit dem Darling, dem… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Murray — I. biographical name (George) Gilbert Aimé 1866 1957 British classical scholar II. biographical name Sir James Augustus Henry 1837 1915 British lexicographer III. biographical name Joseph Edward 1919 American surgeon IV. biographical name Lindley …   New Collegiate Dictionary

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