Mulliken , Robert Sanderson
(1896–1986) American physicist and chemist
Mulliken was born in Newburyport, Massachusetts, the son of an organic chemist. He was educated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and at the University of Chicago, where he obtained his PhD in 1921. After working briefly at Washington Square College, New York, he was appointed to the staff of the University of Chicago, where he served as professor of physics from 1931 until he retired in 1961. From 1961 he was Distinguished Service Professor of Physics and Chemistry at Chicago and Distinguished Research Professor of Chemical Physics at Florida State University.
It was Mulliken, in 1922, who first suggested a method of isotope separation by evaporative centrifuging. Most of his research career was concerned with the interpretation of molecular spectra and with the application of quantum theory to the electronic states of molecules.
Mulliken, with Friedrich Hund, developed the molecular-orbital theory of chemical bonding, which is based on the idea that electrons in a molecule move in the field produced by all the nuclei. The atomic orbitals of isolated atoms become molecular orbitals, extending over two or more atoms in the molecule. He showed how the relative energies of these orbitals could be obtained from the spectra of the molecule.
Mulliken's approach to finding molecular orbitals was to combine atomic orbitals (LCAO, or linear combination of atomic orbitals). He showed that energies of bonds could be obtained by the amount of overlap of atomic orbitals.
Another of Mulliken's contributions is the application of electronegativity – the ability of a particular atom in a molecule to draw electrons to itself. He showed that this property was given by the formula ½(I+E), where I is the ionization potential of the atom and E is its electron affinity.
He also made major contributions to the theory and interpretation of molecular spectra. In 1966 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for chemistry for “his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular-orbital method.”

Scientists. . 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Mulliken, Robert Sanderson — ▪ American chemist and physicist born June 7, 1896, Newburyport, Mass., U.S. died Oct. 31, 1986, Arlington, Va.  American chemist and physicist who received the 1966 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for “fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and… …   Universalium

  • Mulliken, Robert Sanderson — ► (1896 1986) Químico estadounidense. Fue premio Nobel de Química en 1966, por su obra sobre enlaces químicos y la estructura electrónica de moléculas por el método de los orbitales moleculares …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Robert Sanderson Mulliken — Robert Mulliken Robert Sanderson Mulliken (7 juin 1896 31 octobre 1986) était un physicien et chimiste américain. Il est principalement connu pour ses travaux sur le concept d orbitale moléculaire, qui permet d expliquer la structure des… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Robert Sanderson Mulliken — (* 7. Juni 1896 in Newburyport, Massachusetts; † 31. Oktober 1986 in Arlington) war ein US amerikanischer Physiker und Chemiker. Er erhielt 1966 den Nobelpreis für Chemie für seine grundlegenden Arbeiten über die chemischen Bindungen und die… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Mulliken — Robert Sanderson …   Scientists

  • Mulliken — Mulliken, Robert Sanderson …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Robert S. Mulliken — Robert Sanderson Mulliken (* 7. Juni 1896 in Newburyport, Massachusetts; † 31. Oktober 1986 in Arlington) war ein US amerikanischer Physiker und Chemiker. Er erhielt 1966 den Nobelpreis für Chemie für seine grundlegenden Arbeiten über die… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Robert S. Mulliken — Robert Mulliken Robert Sanderson Mulliken (7 juin 1896 31 octobre 1986) était un physicien et chimiste américain. Il est principalement connu pour ses travaux sur le concept d orbitale moléculaire, qui permet d expliquer la structure des… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Mulliken — (Robert Sanderson) (1896 1986) physicien et chimiste américain. Il découvrit la notion d orbitale atomique. P. Nobel 1966 …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Robert S. Mulliken — Infobox Scientist name = Robert Sanderson Mulliken birth date = June 7, 1896 birth place = Newburyport, Massachusetts death date = October 31, 1986 death place = Arlington, Virginia residence = citizenship = nationality = American ethnicity =… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”